"MAKE HELL WHILE THE SUN SHINES"
Proverbial Rhetoric in Winston Churchill's The Second
For my British friend Venetia
While literary historians have
investigated the use and function of proverbial speech in
the works of such major English authors as Geoffrey Chaucer,
William Shakespeare, Charles Dickens, Agatha Christie, and
many others, relatively little attention has been paid to the rhetorical
employment of proverbs and proverbial phrases in political
speeches and writings. A few more recent studies on proverbs
as effective verbal strategies during election
campaigns, as formulaic arguments during political discussions on
television, as part of the political diplomacy of the United
Nations, and as captions of political cartoons and
caricatures exist, but Joseph Raymond's general article on "Tensions in
Proverbs: More Light on International
Understanding" from 1956 still serves as an informative introduction to the
political use of proverbs as ready-made slogans and verbal
Not much is known about utilization of
proverbial language by individual politicians. Towards the
end of the nineteenth century, Hugo Blümmer looked at
the metaphorical style of Otto von Bismarck's (1815-1898)
speeches and letters, showing that this important statesman
used German proverbs as well as literary quotations
effectively to argue a point, to disarm his opponents, and
to add folkloric spice to his political
rhetoric. There are also five short essays on Vladimir Ilich Lenin's
(1870-1924) and Nikita Khrushchev's (1894-1971) rhetorical
use of proverbs for propaganda, agitation, and
manipulation. An article by Wolfgang Mieder has shown that proverbs became
dangerous tools in the hands of many National Socialists,
not only of Adolf Hitler or Joseph Goebbels, who misused
them as anti-Semitic folk wisdom to discredit the Jewish
population. There is also Mieder's detailed study on "Proverbial
Manipulation in Adolf Hitler's Mein
Kampf" which shows how this demagogue made frequent use of German
proverbs and proverbial phrases to explain his ill-conceived
racial and political ambitions in his massive
Scholars thus far have paid particular
attention to the proverbial rhetoric of such folk deceivers
as Lenin and Hitler. Where, one might well ask, are the
studies on politicians and statesmen like Theodore
Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman, Willy Brandt, Ronald Reagan, and
Ross Perrot, who all included proverbial wisdom in their
political speeches? Several systematic investigations of
such public figures of the twentieth century (or earlier
times) are necessary to ascertain the permeating presence of
proverbs in political rhetoric. Speeches, essays, letters,
diaries, memoranda, autobiographies, etc. need to be studied
to gain a complete picture of the role that folk speech
plays in the verbal communication on the highest political
level. There is no immediate need to investigate yet another
literary author for the inclusion of proverbial materials.
Paremiologists would indeed do well to cast their nets over
the use and function of proverbs in the public life of major
and minor politicians.
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Also relating to Soviet Russia is
another use of this twin formula in a letter by Churchill to
President Roosevelt on 8 October 1941. This reference
clearly shows Churchill's understanding of the dangerous
situation in which Stalin and his Russian people found
themselves in view of the German military
As things are now, it appears
to us virtually out of the question either to conclude an
agreement [concerning the sale of wheat] which
may seriously affect her [Russia's] interests
without consulting her, or to approach her on such a
matter at a time when she is engaged in a life-and-death
struggle, and when her richest wheatfields are in the
battle area (III,739-740).
In a final use of this leitmotif, Churchill refers to the British
intervention in Greece in a letter of 5 December 1944 as
"the matter is one of life and death" (VI,253), once again
alluding to the urgency of the situation. Churchill also
made use of the somewhat related somatic binary formula
"body and soul" in a statement which he wrote on 17 November
1938 regarding Nerville Chamberlain's controversial policy
By this time next year we
shall know whether the Prime Minister's view of Herr
Hitler and the German Nazi party is right or wrong. By
this time next year we shall know whether the policy of
appeasement has appeased, or whether it has only
stimulated a more ferocious appetite [Churchill's
emphasis]. All we can do in the meanwhile is to
gather forces of resistance and defence, so that if the
Prime Minister should unhappily be wrong, or misled, or
deceived, we can at the worst keep body and soul together
Churchill had a definite predilection
towards the use of such twin formulas, most likely because
their reduplicative nature helped to increase the strength
of a particular statement. What follows is a list of some of
these proverbial formulas in chronological order of their
appearance in the six volumes of The Second World
The wholesale massacre
[...] in the German execution camps exceeds in
horror the rough and ready butcheries of Ghengis Khan,
and in scale reduces them to pygmy proportions
[...] the Fleet [...] would have to go on
playing hide-and-seek (I,344).
[...] he [Chamberlain] was never more
spick and span or cool and determined than at the last
Cabinets which he attended (II,305).
[...] we should do everything possible, by hook
or by crook, to send at once to Greece the fullest
[...] they [German troops and tanks]
badly needed rest and overhaul after their mechanical
wear and tear in the Balkans (III,323).
It is now or never with the Vichy French (III,507).
Please remember how much they [German troops] got
by brass and bluff at the time of the French collapse
This was no time for a constitutional experiment with a
"period of trial and error" to determine the "future
relationship" of India to the British Empire
[...] action will emerge from what will otherwise
be almost unending hummings and hawings (IV,473).
The pros and cons of this have to be very carefully
I [Churchill] have the greatest confidence in you
[General Alexander] and will back you up through
thick and thin (V,448).
This [the friendly relationship between Churchill and
Roosevelt] continued through all the ups and downs of
the world struggle (VI,414).
It is interesting to note that
Churchill also uses twin formulas to describe Hitler's grasp
of power and Germany's move under him towards military
power: "Thus did Hitler obtain by hook and crook a majority
vote from the German people" (I,55) and "[...] the
German might grew by leaps and bounds, and the time for
overt action approached" (I,66). He also refers to the
assassination of Röhm and other early party members
during the night of 30 June 1934, employing the phrase of
"the night of the long knives" which has become an internationally disseminated proverbial
expression: "In that 'Night of the Long Knives', as it was
called, the unit of National Socialist Germany had been
preserved to carry its curse throughout the world" (I,79). A
dozen pages later, Churchill observes with the accuracy of
hindsight that "If Great Britain and France had each
maintained quantitative parity with Germany [in military
rearmament] they would together have been double as
strong, and Hitler's career of violence might have been
nipped in the bud without the loss of a single life.
Thereafter it was too late" (I,91).
One senses a certain feeling of
fatalism not only in many incidents in which Churchill
employs proverbial language but also throughout many of
these over four thousand pages of war history. Once the free
democracies of the world permitted Hitler to gain ultimate
power, Churchill resigned himself to the fact that this foe
had to be fought on his terms, i.e., through the resolve of
the British people and the strongest military alliance that
could possibly be assembled. There was no way to escape the
fate of a major war, and a number of proverbial leitmotifs underscore this determined viewpoint in
these volumes. The proverb that by its nature expresses the inescapable
course of events that would occur once all attempts at
preventing it had been exhausted is the classical "The die
is cast," used by Julius Caesar on crossing the Rubicon
after coming from Gaul and advancing into Italy against
Pompey (49 B.C.). Churchill in a similar vein plunged
himself into desperate and daring action when he accepted
the position of Prime Minister during the Second World War.
Being a man of action and deeds who worked best in crisis
situations, he made use of this fatalistic proverb three
times in short and decisive statements before the
However, the die was now
Accordingly the die was cast. (1935)
But now the die was cast to fight it out.
The proverb appears seven times in The Second World War, unmistakably indicating
Churchill's unshakable resolve to bring Hitler and his
allies to their knees:
The die was cast. (I,305)
Anyhow, the die is cast. (II,431) The Die is Cast (III,514 [part of chapter
I did not know that the die had already been cast by
Japan or how far the President's [Roosevelt's]
resolves had gone. (III,532)
But the die was cast. (III,627)
The die was cast, and the [British] fleet
dispersed before dark to their several destinations
At 4 a.m. on June 5 the die was irrevocably cast: the
invasion would be launched on June 6. (V,556)
Despite his erudition and vast
knowledge that could lead Churchill to very sophisticated
heights of the English language, he was always ready "to
speak in plain English" and to voice his opinion without
fear of the consequences. Speaking plainly and proverbially
certainly helped in arousing the peoples of the free world
against the tyranny of dictators. There definitely is
proverbial truth in the claim that Winston S. Churchill
"mobilized the English language and sent it into
See Wolfgang Mieder, Proverbs in Literature: An International
Bibliography (Bern: Peter Lang, 1978); and W. Mieder, International Proverb Scholarship: An Annotated
Bibliography, 3 vols. (New York: Garland Publishing,
1982, 1990, and 1993).
See Werner Koller, Redensarten: Linguistische Aspekte,
Vorkommensanalysen, Sprachspiel (Tübingen: Max
Niemeyer, 1977), esp. pp. 122-174; Theres Gautschi, Bildhafte Phraseologismen in der
Nationalratswahlpropaganda (Bern: Peter Lang, 1982);
Edmund Kammerer, Sprichwort und Politik: Sprachliche
Schematismen in Politikerreden, politischem Journalismus
und Graffiti (M.A. Thesis University of Freiburg,
1983); Shirley L. Arora, "On the Importance of Rotting
Fish: A Proverb and Its Audience [during the Michael
Dukakis presidential campaign]," Western
Folklore, 48 (1989), 271-288; and Karen E. Richman,
"'With Many Hands, the Burden Isn't Heavy': Creole
Proverbs and Political Rhetoric in Haiti's Presidential
Elections," Folklore Forum, 23 (1990),
Démétrios Loukatos, "Proverbes et
commentaires politiques: Le public devant les
télé-communications actuelles," Proverbium, 1 (1984), 119-126; and Peter
Kühn, "Routine-Joker in politischen
Fernsehdiskussionen. Plädoyer für eine
textsortenabhängige Beschreibung von
Phraseologismen," Beiträge zur Phraseologie des
Ungarischen und des Deutschen, ed. Regina Hessky
See R.D. Hoggs,
"Proverbs," Secretariat News, 14 (1960), 5-7; and
Victor S.M. de Guinzbourg, Wit and Wisdom of the
United Nations: Proverbs and Apothegms on Diplomacy (New York: privately printed, 1961; supplement
See Lutz Röhrich,
"Die Bildwelt von Sprichwort und Redensart in der Sprache
der politischen Karikatur," Kontakte und Grenzen:
Probleme der Volks-, Kultur- und Sozialforschung.
Festschrift für Gerhard Heilfurth, ed. Hans
Friedrich Foltin (Göttingen: Otto Schwarz, 1969),
pp. 175-207; Wolfgang Mieder, "'It's Five Minutes to
Twelve': Folklore and Saving Life on Earth," International Folklore Review, 7 (1989), 10-21;
and Fionnuala Williams, "'To Kill Two Birds with One
Stone': Variants in a War of Words," Proverbium, 8
Published in Western
Folklore, 15 (1956), 153-158; and reprinted in The
Wisdom of Many: Essays on the Proverb, eds. Wolfgang
Mieder and Alan Dundes (New York: Garland Publishing,
1981), pp. 300-308.
See Hugo Blümmer, Der bildliche Ausdruck in den Reden des Fürsten
Bismarck (Leipzig: S. Hirzel, 1891), esp. pp.
182-186; and H. Blümmer, "Der bildliche Ausdruck in
den Briefen des Fürsten Bismarck," Euphorion,
1 (1894), 590-603 and 771-787.
See Günter Wein,
"Die Rolle der Sprichwörter und Redensarten in der
Agitation und Propaganda," Sprachpflege, 12
(1963), 51-52; Aleksandr M. Zhigulev, "Poslovitsy i
pogovorki v bol'shevitskikh listovkakh," Sovetskaia
Etnografia, 5 (1970), 124-131; L.A. Morozova,
"Upotreblenie V.I. Leninym poslovits," Russkaia
Rech', no volume given, no. 2 (1979), 10-14; N.A.
Meshcherskii, "Traditsionno-knizhnye vyrazheniia v
sovremennom russkom literaturnom iazyke (na materiale
proizvedenii V.I. Lenina)," Voprosy frazeologii, 9
(1975), 110-121; and Jean Breuillard, "Proverbes et
pouvoir politique: Le cas de l'U.R.S.S.," Richesse du
proverbe, eds. François Suard and Claude
Buridant (Lille: Université de Lille, 1984), vol.
2, pp. 155-166.
See "Proverbs in Nazi
Germany: The Promulgation of Anti-Semitism and
Stereotypes Through Folklore," in Wolfgang Mieder, Proverbs Are Never Out of Season: Popular Wisdom in
the Modern Age (New York: Oxford University Press,
1993), pp. 225-255.
1 Manfred Weidhorn,
"'Always the Same Set of Songs': Topoi," in M. Weidhorn, Sir Winston Churchill (Boston: Twayne Publishers,
1979), pp. 34-45.
See for example Robert
Rhodes James, Churchill: A Study in Failure,
1900-1939 (New York: The World Publishing Company,
1970); and Maurice Ashley, Churchill as Historian (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1968).
Cited from Reed
Whittemore, "Churchill and the Limitation of Myth," Yale Review, 44 (1954-1955), 248 (entire article
on pp. 248-262); rpt. as "Churchill as a Mythmaker" in Language and Politics, ed. Thomas P. Brockway
(Boston: D.C. Heath, 1965), p. 56 (entire article on pp.
56-68). See also Keith Alldritt, Churchill the Writer:
His Life as a Man of Letters (London: Hutchinson,
A.G. Gardiner, "Genius
Without Judgment: Churchill at Fifty," in G. Gardiner, Portraits and Portents (New York: Harper &
Row, 1926), p. 63 (entire article pp. 58-64); rpt. in Churchill: A Profile, ed. Peter Stansky (New York:
Hill and Wang, 1973), p. 52 (entire article pp.
Ibid., p. 58
(rpt., pp. 48-49).
James (see note 13), p.
David Cannadine (ed.), Blood, Toil, Tears and Sweat: The Speeches of Winston
Churchill (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1989),
p. 1 (introduction).
Regarding these six
volumes as "history" see Ashley (note 13), pp. 159-209;
Keith Niles Hull, The Literary Art of Winston
Churchill's "The Second World War" (Diss. University
of Washington, 1969); and Manfred Weidhorn, Sword and
Pen: A Survey of the Writings of Sir Winston
Churchill (Albuquerque, New Mexico: University of New
Mexico Press, 1974), pp. 139-177.
Joseph W. Miller,
"Winston Churchill, Spokesman for Democracy," Quarterly Journal of Speech, 28 (1942), 137 (the
entire essay on pp. 131-138.
Weidhorn (see note 11),
p. 133 (the entire chapter on pp. 130-150). On
Churchill's use of imagery see also Joaquim Paço
d'Arcos, Churchill: The Statesman and Writer (London: The Caravel Press, 1957), p. 25.
Ibid., p. 134.
See also Gwendoline Lilian Reid, Winston S.
Churchill's Theory of Public Speaking as Compared to His
Practice (Diss. University of Minnesota, 1987), pp.
Ibid., p. 136 and
p. 137. On Churchill's frequent use of colloquialisms see
also Manfred Weidhorn, Churchill's Rhetoric and
Political Discourse (Lanham, Maryland: University
Press of America, 1987), pp. 31-32. See also the comment
that Churchill "often rounded off [a discussion]
by a sudden colloquialism that from most other people
would be an anticlimax" by Collin Brooks, "Churchill the
Conversationalist," in Churchill by His
Contemporaries, ed. Charles Eade (London: The Reprint
Society, 1953), p. 248 (the entire essay on pp.
Cited from Randolph S.
Churchill, Winston S. Churchill. Companion volume
I, part 2, 1896-1900 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company,
1967), pp. 819-820 (the entire essay on pp.
See Wolfgang Mieder and
George B. Bryan, The Proverbial Winston S. Churchill:
An Index to Proverbs in the Works of Sir Winston
Churchill (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press,
In addition to the
references already cited, see the lack of comments on
Churchill's use of proverbs in the following three essays
included in Charles Eade (ed.), Churchill by His
Contemporaries (London: The Reprint Society, 1953):
Colin Coote, "Churchill the Journalist" (pp. 114-121);
Norman Birkett, "Churchill the Orator" (pp. 223-233); and
Ivor Brown, "Churchill the Master of Words" (pp.
312-317). The following two studies are also void of any
comments regarding proverbs: Herbert Leslie Stewart, Sir Winston Churchill as Writer and Speaker (London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1954); and Charles W.
Lomas, "Winston Churchill: Orator-Historian," Quarterly Journal of Speech, 44 (1958), 153-160. A
special disappointment in this regard is the study by Edd
Miller and Jesse J. Villarreal, "The Use of
Clichés by Four Contemporary Speakers [Winston
Churchill, Anthony Eden, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Henry
Wallace]," Quarterly Journal of Speech, 31
references concerning these nine citations see Mieder and
Bryan (note 25). For the Maori proverb cited by Churchill
see Raymond Firth, "Proverbs in Native Life, with Special
Reference to Those of the Maori," Folk-Lore (London), 38 (1927), 153.
Herbert Howarth, "Behind
Winston Churchill's Grand Style," Commentary, 11
(1951), 551 (the entire article on pp. 549-557).
It should be noted that
the following "popular" collections of Churchill's wit
and wisdom do not contain any scholarly annotations and
are, of course, limited to Churchill's own quotable
statements (often in the form of entire paragraphs):
Colin Coote (ed.), Maxims and Reflections of the Rt.
Hon. Winston S. Churchill (Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 1947); Bill Adler, The Churchill Wit (New
York: Coward McCann, 1965); Adam Sykes and Iain Sproat, The Wit of Sir Winston (London: Leslie Frewin,
1965); Jack House, Winston Churchill: His Wit and
Wisdom (London: Hyperion Books, 19?); and James C.
Humes, The Wit and Wisdom of Winston Churchill (New York: HarperCollins, 1994). See also James C. Humes'
earlier collection of "Wit and Wisdom" in his book Churchill: Speaker of the Century (New York: Stein
and Day, 1980), pp. 261-279, with the following comment:
"The titanic output of his work is staggering to those
editors and anthologists who try to select for readers
the choicest of his wit and wisdom. Among writers in the
English language, perhaps only Shakespeare offers more
quotable lines. [...] There are more gems to be
gleaned in the writings and speeches of Churchill than in
the sayings of Mao or the observations of Machiavelli"
See Mieder (note
All citations are taken
from the following standard edition: Winston S.
Churchill, The Second World War (London: Cassell
& Co., 1948-1954). The two numbers in parentheses
refer to the volume and page.
For a short study of
this proverbial expression see Wolfgang Mieder and David
Pilachowski, "Die 'Nacht der langen Messer'," Der
Sprachdienst, 19 (1975), 149-152.
For proverbs expressing
a fatalistic worldview see Matti Kuusi, "Fatalistic
Traits in Finnish Proverbs," in Fatalistic Beliefs in
Religion, Folklore and Literature, ed. Helmer
Ringgren (Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1967), pp.
89-96; rpt. in Mieder and Dundes (note 6), pp.
See Mieder and Bryan
(note 25) for precise references.
For two representative
collections see Robert Hendrickson, Salty Words (New York: Hearst Marine Books, 1984); and Wolfgang
Mieder, Salty Wisdom: Proverbs of the Sea (Shelburne, Vermont: The New England Press, 1990).
For a history of this
proverbial phrase see Dietmar Peil, "'Im selben Boot':
Variationen über ein metaphorisches Argument," Archiv für Kulturgeschichte, 68 (1986),
269-293; and Wolfgang Mieder, "'Wir sitzen alle in einem
Boot': Herkunft, Geschichte und Verwendung einer neueren
deutschen Redensart," Muttersprache, 100 (1990),
18-37. See also the more general study by Irene
Meichsner, Die Logik von Gemeinplätzen.
Vorgeführt an Steuermannstopos und
Schiffsmetapher (Bonn: Bouvier, 1983).
See Brown (note 26), p.
Winston S. Churchill, My Early Life: A Roving Commission (New York:
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1958 ), p.
Ibid., p. 116.
See also Darrell Holley, Churchill's Literary
Allusions: An Index to the Education of a Soldier,
Statesman and Litterateur (Jefferson, North Carolina:
McFarland and Company, 1987); Reid (note 22), pp.
284-290; and more generally Paul F. Boller, Quotesmanship: The Use and Abuse of Quotations for
Polemical and Other Purposes (Dallas, Texas: Southern
Methodist University Press, 1967).
See Victor L. Albjerg, Winston Churchill (New York: Twayne Publishers,
1973), p. 46. See also Ashley (note 13), p. 23; and
Weidhorn (note 11), p. 30.
For a history of this
Latin proverb see Anette Erler, "Zur Geschichte des
Spruches 'Bis dat, qui cito dat' [He gives twice who
gives quickly]," Philologus, 13 (1986),
Karl Friedrich Wilhelm
Wander, Deutsches Sprichwörter-Lexikon, 5
vols. (Leipzig: F.A. Brockhaus, 1867-1880; rpt.
Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1964),
vol. 1 (1867), col. 278 (no. 112).
Ibid., vol. 2
(1870), col. 45 (no. 1024).
See Mieder and Bryan
(note 25) for precise references.
Cited from Robert Rhodes
James (ed.), Winston S. Churchill: His Complete
Speeches, 1897-1963 (London: Chelsea House
Publishers, 1974), vol. 8, p. 8507.
See J. Alan Pfeffer, The Proverb in Goethe (New York: King's Crown
Press, 1948), p. 24 (no. 56).
The only reference work
in which it is registered with a reference to Goethe is
Lilian Dalbiac, Dictionary of Quotations (German) (New York: Frederick Ungar, 1958 [1st ed. 1909]),
James (note 45), vol. 6,
Winston S. Churchill, The World Crisis (New York: Charles Scribner's
Sons, 1931 ), vol. 6, p. 1. See Manfred
Weidhorn, "Churchill the Phrase Forger," Quarterly
Journal of Speech, 58 (1972), 170 (the entire essay
on pp. 161-174).
See John Bartlett, Familiar Quotations, ed. Justin Kaplan, 16th ed.
(Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1992), p. 620:5 (note
references see Mieder and Bryan (note 25).
Churchill delighted in
using this quotation as can be seen from the citations in
Mieder and Bryan (note 25). It should be noted, however,
that he sometimes cites its source incorrectly as coming
from the Constitution of the United States.
A page later Churchill
returns again to this special relationship: "Thus began a
friendship which across all the ups and downs of war I
have preserved with deep satisfaction to this day"
Cited from James (note
45), vol. 6, p. 6266. See also Birkett (note 26), p. 226;
Weidhorn (note 49), pp. 168-169; and Bartlett (note 50),
p. 620 (no. 10).
Ibid., vol. 7, p.
Ibid., vol. 8, p.
Ibid., vol. 6, p.
6238. See also Bartlett (note 50), p. 620 (no. 8).
See Weidhorn (note 49),
For this type of
political use of proverbs see Charles H. Titus,
"Political Maxims," California Folklore Quarterly,
4 (1945), 377-389; Wolfgang Mieder, Das Sprichwort in
unserer Zeit (Frauenfeld: Huber, 1975), pp. 14-22;
and W. Mieder, Deutsche Sprichwörter in
Literatur, Politik, Presse und Werbung (Hamburg:
Helmut Buske, 1983), pp. 11-41.
Cited from Mieder and
Bryan (note 25).
Albjerg (note 40), p.
51. Albjerg continues: "If he was not preparing a speech,
organizing a report, planning a campaign, painting a
mural, writing a book, building a wall, digging a ditch,
he was off in the Enchantress inspecting dockyards
or observing naval maneuvers. Each enterprise, whatever
it was, constituted an entrancing experience which, in
its performance, held him spellbound."
See also the interesting
rephrasing of this proverb as "The iron stands hot for
the striking" (VI,190), cited by Churchill from a
communication to him by Sir A. Clark Kerr, British
Ambassador in Moscow, concerning Churchill's upcoming
trip to Russia to meet Stalin in October 1944.
The term was coined by
Wolfgang Mieder, who also collected 4,500 German
anti-proverbs in his Antisprichwörter, 3
vols. (Wiesbaden: Verlag für deutsche Sprache, 1982
and 1985; Wiesbaden: Quelle & Meyer, 1989).
See Richard Jente, "Make
Hay While the Sun Shines," Southern Folklore
Quarterly, 1 (1937), 63-68.
It might be of interest
to note here that Churchill describes Stalin's pragmatism
through a proverb as well, stating that "Marshall Stalin
followed the Russian maxim , 'You may always walk with
the Devil [in this case the Italian fascists]
till you get to the end of the bridge'" (V,167).
For the five references
of Churchill's use of this proverb see Mieder and Bryan
Quoted in The
Churchill Years 1874-1965, intro. Lord Butler of
Saffron Walden (New York: The Viking Press, 1965), p.
Department of German and Russian
University of Vermont
Burlington, Vermont 05405