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PROVERBS IN MEXICAN AMERICAN TRADITION

SHIRLEY L. ARORA

PROVERBS IN MEXICAN AMERICAN TRADITION

[Author's note: This article was originally published along with A Critical Bibliography of Mexican American Proverbs in Aztlán: International Journal of Chicano Studies Research 13 [1982]: 43-70 and 71-80.]

Mexican Americans share with speakers of Spanish throughout the world a notably rich and varied proverb repertoire--largely though not entirely derived from Peninsular Spain--and a vital and continuing tradition of proverb use that appears to contrast significantly, at least in some aspects, with that of Anglo-American society in general. Hispanic proverbs themselves have been the subject of compilation and study from medieval times down to the present, but the actual use of proverbs in Spanish, whether in the Mexican American community or elsewhere, has scarcely been examined. Roger Abrahams, in an essay summarizing some of the characteristics and functions of proverbs in general, remarks that "we still know little of why and how people use proverbs, or anything of the range of social use and cultural situations in which they are encountered."[1] His comment is as applicable to Hispanic--including Mexican American--tradition as to any other.

I should like to examine some aspects of proverb use among Mexican Americans, specifically in the area of Greater Los Angeles, California, as revealed in the course of an ongoing field project dealing with Hispanic proverbial speech.[2] Originally designed as a comparative survey involving informants from virtually all the Spanish-speaking countries, the project quickly and quite naturally came to reflect the predominantly Mexican American identity of our Spanish-speaking population: over half the informants in the project are of Mexican origin, while the remainder are divided among eighteen other Spanish-language countries. Along with a broad sampling of proverb texts, most recorded necessarily out of context, the survey has sought to assemble, by means of interviews with informants, information on how or where particular proverbs were learned, with whom or with what kind of individual their use is associated, the occasions on which they have been or would be used and general attitudes toward the use of proverbs. The resulting body of information combines self-reportage of the type often employed in studies of bilingualism, for example, with observation-in-retrospect, so to speak, on the part of informants asked to recall specific occasions of proverb usage. While allowances must clearly be made for some degree of inaccuracy--involuntary or otherwise--in the process of self-reporting or of recall, the approach can lead to at least a tentative overview of current proverb use in Mexican American tradition.[3] With time it should be possible to fill in the details of the picture with additional information gained through on-the-spot observation and recording of proverb use in context.





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Proverbs, Sayings and Popular Wisdom - Audio Proverbs in English and Romance Languages, Proverb Studies, Proverb Collections, International Proverb Bibliographies

A WORLD OF PROVERBS

De Proverbio – Latin for ‘About the Proverb’ – is a website devoted to proverbs in several languages. It was founded in January 1995 at the University of Tasmania, Australia. De Proverbio was the world’s first refereed electronic journal of international proverb studies. It’s inspiration was Proverbium: Yearbook of International Proverb Scholarship edited by Prof. Wolfgang Mieder at the University of Vermont. The Yearbook continued the tradition of Proverbium: Bulletin d’Information sur les Recherches Parémiologiques, published occasionally from 1965 to 1975 by the Society for Finnish Literature, Helsinki.

Recently, the website has added audio proverbs in six languages, read by native speakers.  Also available for the lovers of languages and their proverbial richess is a page of multilingual proverb crosswords.

Proverbs and Their Definition

From time immemorial proverbs have fascinated people of all ages and from all walks of life. As it happened throughout centuries, common people today still avail themselves of the proverb’s rich oral tradition to convey their culture and values, while scholars collect and study them from a wide range of angles: linguistic, social, psychological, political, historical and so on.

Proverbs by James Chapman - cat
A cat in mittens won’t catch mice

The problem of proverb definition is still open. However, it is broadly accepted that proverbs were born from man’s experience. And that they generally express, in a very succinct way, common-sense truths. They give sound advice and reflect the human condition. But, as we know, human nature is both good and bad and the latter is often mirrored by discriminatory proverbs, be they against women, different nationalities or particular social groups. For a thorough discussion of proverb definition, see Popular Views of the Proverb by Prof. Wolfgang Mieder. Another article which sheds some light on the proverb definition is The Wisdom of Many and the Wit of One by Archer Taylor.

Proverbs and Their Origin

As to the origin of proverbs we tend to assume that they were born in times when human society began to self-impose rules and embrace principles necessary for communal living. Research can trace them back only to the time when language was recorded by means of some type of writing. The Sumerian civilisation of more than five thousand years ago is the oldest known civilisation to have made use of proverbs, some of which have been passed on through its cuneiform inscriptions.

One such proverb, in its Latin version, is Canis festinans caecos parit catulos. It spread to other languages. The English translation is The hasty bitch brings forth blind whelps. In French, it became La chienne dans sa hâte a mis bas des chiots aveugles. In the Italian La gatta frettolosa fece i gattini ciechi, the bitch has been replaced by the cat. The Portuguese version is Cadelas apressadas parem cães tortos, and the Romanian, Căţeaua de pripă îşi naşte căţeii fără ochi.

Proverbs and Their Use

Apart from use on a wide scale in day-to-day speech, there is ample evidence that proverbs were essential tools in teaching and learning. The pedagogical use of proverbs was encountered first in Sumerian society and subsequently this use became widespread throughout Medieval Europe.

Proverbs by James Chapman - book
A book is like a garden carried in the pocket

Proverbs and proverbial expressions are found in religious manuscripts of the first half of the eighth century. The aim of introducing proverbs into religious texts was to help novices to learn Latin, and this practice became widespread by the tenth century.

The use of proverbs in teaching and learning was not circumscribed to England. Relatively new research attests to the use of proverbs in teaching in the eleventh century in Liège, France. In Italy the famous medical School of Salerno of the eleventh century formulated medical precepts which later became proverbs adopted by different cultures. Post prandium stabis, post coenam ambulabis was translated After dinner sit awhile, after supper walk a mile in English. In French became Après dîner repose un peu, après souper promène une mille, while in Italian Dopo pranzo riposar un poco, dopo cena passeggiar un miglio. The Spanish version is Después de yantar reposad un poco, después de cenar pasead una milla and the Portuguese Depois de jantar, dormir; depois de cear, passos mil.

Proverbs and Their Abuse

But from use comes abuse, as a Spanish proverb says.  There is no doubt that the capacity of the proverb to convey universal truths concisely led to their abuse and manipulation.

Hitler and his Nazi regime employed proverbs as emotional slogans for propaganda purposes and encouraged the publication of anti-semitic proverb collections. For a thorough analysis of this phenomenon, please read the fascinating article “ … as if I were the master of situation.” Proverbial Manipulation in Adolf Hitler by Prof. Wolfgang Mieder.

At the opposite end of the political spectrum, communist regimes of the past have not only manipulated proverbs, but also purged popular collections of features which did not reflect their political ends. The former Soviet regime is at the forefront of such actions. One type of manipulation described by Jean Breuillard in Proverbes et pouvoir politique: Le cas de l’U.R.S.S.  (published in “Richesse du proverbe”, Eds. François Suard and Claude Buridant. Lille: Université de Lille, 1984. II, 155-166). It consisted in modifying ancient proverbs like La vérité parcourt le monde (Truth spreads all over the world) into La vérité de Lénine parcourt le monde (Lenin’s truth spreads all over the world). As a result the new creation is unequivocably charged with a specific ideological message.

Manipulation did not stop at individual proverbs, it extended to entire collections. Vladimir Dal’s mid-nineteen century collection of Russian proverbs is such an example. Its first Soviet edition (1957) reduces the proverbs containing the word God from 283 to 7 only. Instead, those which express compassion for human weaknesses, such as alcoholism, disappear altogether. In more recent years, in Ceauşescu’s Romania, Proverbele românilor (published in 1877 by I. C. Hinţescu) suffered the same treatment. More than 150 proverbs were eliminated or changed in order to respond rigidly to the communist ideology.

Proverbs Across Time and Space

The Oxford Dictionary of English Proverbs states that foreign proverbs’ contribution to the English proverbial stock has enriched our language. Many proverbs of foreign origin were quickly absorbed into English life and have a rightful place in an English dictionary. Indeed, a close scrutiny of that dictionary reveals that more than two hundred and fifty proverbs are listed as first existing in Italian.

This is also true for other modern languages, particularly French and Spanish. The translation is not always literal. At times it is adapted to the new language and the resulting proverb is often enriched in its expression. For instance the Latin Homo sine pecunia est imago mortis (A man without money is the image of death) is rather closely translated in Italian as Uomo senza quattrini è un morto che cammina (A man without money is a dead man walking).

However, in other languages the metaphor changes, but not the meaning. In English the proverb becomes A man without money is a bow without an arrow, while in French Un homme sans argent / Est un loup sans dents (A man without money is a wolf without teeth) and an element of rhyme is introduced. The Romanian adaptation is a real poetic gem Omul fără bani e ca pasărea fără aripi; Când dă să zboare / Cade jos şi moare (A man without money is like a bird without wings; When he tries to fly / He falls down and dies). The concept is essentially the same: the man without money lacks something important…

Proverbs Today

Proverbs by James Chapman - egg and hen
The egg thinks it’s smarter than the hen

While proverbs are still used today in a traditional way, that is in speech, literature and teaching, they have found a new ever expanding use in the advertising industry and in the mass media. One example is Here today, gone tomorrow, which became Hair today, gone tomorrow in the hair-removal industry. In the mass media it has a variety of paraphrases such as Hear today, gone tomorrow or Heir today, gone tomorrow. Before the Barcelona Olympic Games the old proverb All roads lead to Rome became All roads lead to… Barcelona in many English language newspapers and magazines. A new phenomenon encountered in many languages nowadays and is undoubtedly a sign of the proverb’s resilience and vitality.

Important writers of the past, among them Goethe and Voltaire, have questioned the traditional wisdom of proverbs. That led to some proverb transformations. Prof. Wolfgang Mieder coined the term anti-proverb for all forms of creative proverb changes. They can be deliberate innovations, alterations, variations, parodies. Anti-proverbs are widely spread today, some living a short time, some even making their way into recent proverb collections. A new broom sweeps clean, but the old one knows the corners and Absence makes the heart grow fonder – for somebody else are considered anti-proverbs.

Proverbs and Their Collection

Apart from studies on individual and multilingual proverbs and proverbial expressions, you will find a few e-books on our website. I will mention a Brazilian collection and a dictionary of equivalent English and Romanian proverbs. Prof. Wolfgang Mieder’s yearly bibliographies are an invaluable tool for students and researchers. Given their widespread use over the millennia, it is no wonder that scholars of the past started assembling proverbs in collections. Aristotle is believed to be among the first paremiographers (collectors of proverbs), but, unfortunately, his collection was lost. In more recent times a great impetus to the collection of proverbs was given by Erasmus. His fame spread from Venice throughout Europe after the publication in 1508 of his Adagiorum Chiliades. This collection contained 3,260 proverbs drawn from classical authors.

The success of the book led to several augmented editions culminating with that of 1536, which contains 4,151 proverbs. Erasmus’ work was translated into several European languages. While it became the model for future proverb collections in those languages, they were widely copied and translated.

One good example of such a practice is the 1591 Italian collection Giardino di Ricreatione, nel quale crescono fronde, fiori e frutti, vaghe, leggiadri e soavi, sotto nome di sei miglia proverbii, e piacevoli riboboli Italiani, colti e scelti da Giovanni Florio. And two decades later appeared in French as Le Jardin de Récréation, au quel croissent rameaux, fleurs et fruits très-beaux, gentils et souefs, soubz le nom de Six mille proverbes et plaisantes rencontres françoises, recueillis et triéez par GOMÈS DE TRIER, non seulement utiles mais délectables pour tous espritz désireux de la très-noble et copieuse langue françoise, nouvellement mis en lumière, à Amsterdam, par PAUL DE RAVESTEYN.

Proverbs and Fun

Proverbs by James Chapman - duck
If the world flooded, it wouldn’t matter to the duck

On the less academic side, you can test your knowledge of languages by solving our bilingual or multilingual crosswords. Or, you can listen to our featured proverbs in 6 languages – English, French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian and Spanish. Also, enjoy sharing them with your friends. Some were posted on Twitter as comments to political events of the day.

Painters in Renaissance time, from Hieronymus Bosch to Pieter Bruegel, with his famous Netherlandish Proverbs, were attracted by the subject.

Modern artists like James Chapman illustrated recently proverbs from other world languages with hilarious cartoons. See some of his images on this page.

Of the 304 informants of Mexican origin who have participated in the survey so far, 77, or approximately one fourth, were born in the United States, although not necessarily in California. The overwhelming majority of the American-born group are second-generation Mexican Americans, with a sprinkling of third and even fourth or fifth generations also included. Among the Mexican-born informants the length of residence in the United States (principally southern California) ranges from a few months to sixty years or more. Almost all of the informants are bilingual in the broad sense of being able to "produce meaningful utterances in more than one language,"[4] although there are some--usually either very recent arrivals or elderly long-time residents--who describe themselves as knowing no English at all. The language ability of the informants born in the United States varies from "symmetrical bilingualism" (equal domination of both languages) to, in a few instances, inability to speak Spanish at all and a limited comprehension of the language.

The full text of this article is published in De Proverbio - Issue 2:1995, an electronic book, available from amazon.com and other leading Internet booksellers.

Hayden observes, in his study of language maintenance cited earlier, that "often, despite or because of strong parent interest, children resist the maintenance of the ethnic mother tongue, while their children, in turn, may hold a more benign attitude toward it" (p. 202). A somewhat similar situation in regard to proverb maintenance is suggested in some of the comments of second- and third-generation informants in our survey, although there is no clear-cut contrast between the two groups. One Texas-born informant, now a sales representative for a Los Angeles firm, admits to knowing a great many proverbs as a young man (he is now in his mid-thirties), but explains that he no longer uses them because they "belong to the lower classes" ("son de la plebe"). Another second-generation informant, Nick E., recalls that his parents' habit of addressing proverbs to him was a source of annoyance as he was growing up--until as he grew older he discovered that he could counteract their proverbs with others that were of opposite meaning. Helen N., a third-generation resident of Los Angeles who speaks virtually no Spanish but understands the language to a limited extent, looks upon proverbs as characteristic of persons who "don't know how to express themselves, so they just throw these proverbs at you and confuse you"; she does not, she admits, understand many of the sayings that she hears. A more tolerant attitude, on the other hand, is expressed by another young woman, born in Los Angeles of Mexican parents, who describes herself and her brothers as "brought up by dichos"; proverbs were used in her family "for getting us to do certain tasks, for misbehavior, or for answering questions we shouldn't have asked." She recalls that she and her brother used to laugh at their mother's "constant" use of proverbs ("We'd say '¡Ay, mamá, usted y sus dichos!'"), but reports that they are now beginning to see that "many of them are true."

The parents of Delia B. stopped using Spanish in the home when Delia entered school, in order to facilitate her learning of English; as a consequence she now speaks English better than she speaks Spanish, and her younger brothers and sisters speak no native Spanish at all (some of them have studied it in school). Since Delia's husband also knows no Spanish, Delia speaks the language only when she visits her own parents; and although she recalls, and was able to contribute, some proverbs used by her Mexican-born mother, she reports that she never uses any of them herself. Yolanda A., on the other hand, a third-generation native of New Mexico now residing in Los Angeles, is totally bilingual. She used Spanish as a child at home, learned English in school, and later "improved" her Spanish, according to her own statement, after marrying her Mexican-born husband. Yolanda uses proverbs frequently in her own family circle, particularly to her children, and is outspoken in her approval of their "wisdom."

The above sampling of comments illustrates something of the range of attitudes toward proverbs expressed by our informants, attitudes that in many cases are undoubtedly linked to broader attitudes toward language and other aspects of ethnic background as a whole. To be sure, any characterization of "attitudes" is necessarily in a very general sense--the actual attitude of an individual will no doubt vary from one situation to another and from one type of proverb to another, and may involve a whole complex of interacting factors. How does one know, for example, whether antagonism is aroused by the using of a proverb to give advice, or by the act of giving advice itself? The question is particularly relevant in relation to the negative comments made by some of our younger informants concerning the use of proverbs by their elders.

On the whole, general attitudes toward proverb use appear more favorable among the first-generation, Mexican-born informants than among the second and third generations, although there are notable exceptions. Age may in fact be a more significant factor than a distinction between "Mexican-born" and "American-born" informants, as suggested by such comments as those of Noemi F.; but we know nothing about the attitudes of young people in Mexico itself toward the use of proverbs and therefore have no way of judging whether the apparent negative trend can be considered "Mexican American" as opposed to "Mexican" or merely a generational trait. It must be kept in mind also that informants who have participated in our survey have done so because, whatever their attitudes, they knew at least some proverbs (varying in number from two or three to as many as a hundred or more). Our sample does not, then, include individuals who, for whatever reason, quite literally did not know or could not recall any proverbs whatsoever.

In examining further the question of proverb maintenance in Mexican American tradition it will be convenient to borrow once more from the vocabulary of sociolinguistics and to make use of the concept of "domains" or "fields of interpersonal relationships." These have been variously delineated by investigators, but the four-fold division suggested by Barker will be appropriate for our purposes. In his study of the use of Spanish and English in the Mexican American community of Tucson, Barker identifies four such fields--intimate or familial, informal, formal, and intergroup or Anglo-Mexican--and observes that Spanish is "almost universally dominant" in the first two of these, while English predominates in the remaining two, even in situations involving bilingual individuals.[17] Observations concerning the use of proverbs as reported by our Mexican American informants parallel these findings; that is, although the various kinds of proverb use cut across all four domains, they are concentrated in the first and second. This concentration is not to be assumed to be an automatic consequence of language maintenance in these domains, since the same general pattern of proverb use appears to apply where bilingualism is not a factor--for example, in Mexico itself and in other Hispanic traditions. Instead, it is more appropriate to view this coincidence of concentration as a kind of "preservation of habitat," to apply an ecological metaphor, that favors the maintenance of proverb use in precisely those domains in which it is naturally concentrated. The corollary to this observation is that once the "habitat" is threatened, the continued survival of Hispanic proverbs in Mexican American tradition will be threatened as well.

The full text of this article is published in De Proverbio - Issue 2:1995, an electronic book, available from amazon.com and other leading Internet booksellers.

The observations derived from our present survey, tentative as they are, should serve to convey some notion of the complexities of proverb use, both in general and within a bilingual community. Much, obviously, remains to be investigated. Many--indeed, most--of the questions raised here can only be answered through patient, detailed observation and recording. Individuals within the community who are attuned to the various aspects of bilingualism and proverb use would, for example, be in a strategic position to undertake detailed and accurate on-the-spot records of the actual use of proverbs--as has in fact been done by some of the young people who have taken part in our survey. Perhaps an increased awareness of proverbs as an ethnic or cultural resource and of the multitude of roles that proverbs can and do play within the Mexican American community will encourage just such investigations, so that in time we will have the means for assessing more fully the current status of the proverb in Mexican American tradition and for deriving some answers concerning its future as well.

 

Notes

  1. Roger D. Abrahams, "Proverbs and Proverbial Expressions," in Folklore and Folklife: An Introduction, ed. Richard M. Dorson (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972), p. 119.

  2. A portion of the collectanea from the project has been published as Proverbial Comparisons and Related Expressions in Spanish Recorded in Los Angeles, California, University of California Folklore Studies no. 29 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1977).

  3. The use of self-reports in studies of linguistic behavior is examined in Joshua A. Fishman and Charles Terry, "The Contrastive Validity of Census Data on Bilingualism in a Puerto Rican Neighborhood," in Bilingualism in the Barrio, ed. Joshua A. Fishman, Robert L. Cooper, and Roxana Ma, Language Science Monographs, vol.7, 2nd ed. (Bloomington:Indiana University Publications, 1975), pp.177-197.

  4. Fernando Peñalosa, "Chicano Multilingualism and Multiglossia," in El lenguaje de los chicanos, ed. Eduardo Hernández-Chávez et al. (Arlington, Va.: Center for Applied Linguistics, 1975), p.165.

  5. Comparisons and exaggerations contributed by Mexican American informants are included in the volume of collectanea cited in note 2.

  6. Abrahams, "Proverbs and Proverbial Expressions," p. 123.

  7. For data on the history and the distribution of this and other similar proverbs, see Shirley L. Arora, "'El que nace para tamal...': A Study in Proverb Patterning," Folklore Américas 28 (1968): 55-79; and "The El que nace Proverbs: A Supplement," Journal of Latin American Lore 1 (1975): 185-198.

  8. The foremost source for our knowledge of seventeenth-century Spanish proverbs is Gonzalo Correas, Vocabulario de refranes y frases proverbiales [1627], ed. Louis Combet (Bordeaux: Institut d'Etudes Ibériques et Ibéroamericaines, Université de Bordeaux, 1967). For a convenient compilation of proverbs from diverse medieval Spanish sources, see Eleanor O'Kane, Refranes y frases proverbiales españolas de la Edad Media, Boletín de la Real Academia Española, Anejo 2 (Madrid: Real Academia Española, 1959).

  9. Published sources of proverbs will be designated in each case by the author's surname, publication date, and page or number; for full information, see the bibliography at the end of this study. All examples not so indentified are drawn from the field project. Informants whose comments are cited have been assigned fictitious names.

  10. Some of the factors affecting the use and meaning of proverbs are discussed by Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett in "Toward a Theory of Proverb Meaning," Proverbium no. 22 (1973): pp. 821-827.

  11. The first definition quoted was written by Taylor for the Standard Dictionary of Folklore, Mythology and Legend, ed. Maria Leach (New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1949-1950), p. 902; the second appears in The Proverb and An Index to The Proverb (Hatboro, Pa.: Folklore Associaes, 1962), p. 3.

  12. Augustín Yáñez, Las tierras flacas, 3rd ed. (México, D.F.: Joaquín Mortiz, 1968).

  13. Rosan Jordan De Caro, "Language Loyalty and Folklore Studies: The Mexican-American," Western Folklore 31 (1972):83.

  14. Robert G. Hayden, "Some Community Dynamics of Language Maintenance," in Language Loyalty in the United States, ed. Joshua A. Fishman (The Hague: Mouton, 1965), pp. 193-194.

  15. Tale Type 1373A, in Stanley Robe, Index of Mexican Folktales, University of California Folklore Studies, no. 26 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of Califoria Press, 1974), p. 171.

  16. For a useful overview of research in these fields, see Joshua A. Fishman, "Language Maintenance and Language Shift as a Field of Inquiry: A Definition of the Field and Suggestions for its Further Development," Linguistics 9 (1964): 32-70.

  17. George C. Barker, "Social Functions of Language in a Mexican-American Community," in El lenguaje de los chicanos, ed. Eduardo Hernández Chávez et al. (Arlington, Va.: Center for Applied Linguistics, 1975), pp. 176-177. This article first appeared in Acta Americana 5 (1974): 185-202. For further comment on various delineations of "domains," see Fishman, "Language Maintenance," p. 38.

  18. Démétrios Loukatos, "L'emploi du proverbe aux différents ges," Proverbium no. 2 (1965): 17-26.

  19. Fishman, "Language Maintenance," p. 53.

 

Bibliography

Aranda, Charles. Dichos: Proverbs and Sayings from the Spanish. Rev. ed. Santa Fe, New Mexico: Sunstone Press, 1977. (Unpaged; page numbers have been supplied, beginning with the title page, for items cited from this collection.)

"California Spanish Proverbs and Adages." Western Folklore 3 (1944), 121-123.

Campa, Arthur L. Sayings and Riddles in New Mexico. University of New Mexico Bulletin, Language Series, vol. 6, no. 2. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico, 1937.

Cerda, Gilberto, Berta Cabaza, and Julieta Farías. El vocabulario español de Texas. University of Texas Hispanic Studies, 5. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1953; reprint 1970.

Chávez, Tibo J. New Mexican Folklore of the Río Abajo. Portales, New Mexico: Bishop Printing Co., 1972.

Cobos, Rubén, ed. Southwestern Spanish Proverbs / Refranes españoles del sudoeste. Cerrillos, New Mexico: San Marcos Press, 1973

Espinosa, Aurelio. "New Mexican Spanish Folklore, Parts IV and V." Journal of American Folklore 26 (1913), 97-122.

Galván, Roberto A., and Richard V.Teschner. El diccionario del español chicano / The Dictionary of Chicano Spanish. Rev. ed. Silver Springs, Maryland: Institute of Modern Languages, 1977.

Espinosa, Aurelio. "New Mexican Spanish Folklore, Parts IV and V," Journal of American Folklore 26 (1913): 97-122.

Lea, Aurora Lucero-White. Literary Folklore of the Hispanic Southwest. San Antonio: Naylor, 1953.

MacArthur, Mildred Yorba. California-Spanish Proverbs. San Francisco: Colt Press, 1944.

Molera, Frances M. "California Spanish Proverbs." Western Folklore 6 (1947), 65-67.

Paredes, Américo. "Dichos," in Mexican-American Authors, ed. Américo Paredes and Raymund Paredes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1972. Pp. 27-34.

Pérez, Soledad. "Mexican Folklore from Austin, Texas," in The Healer of Los Olmos, ed. Wilson Mathis Hudson. Texas Folklore Society Publications, 24. Dallas: Southern Methodist University Press, 1951. Pp. 71-127.

Robe, Stanley, ed. Antología del saber popular: A Selection from Various Genres of Mexican Folklore Across Borders. Aztlán Publications, Monograph 2. Los Angeles: University of California, Los Angeles, Chicano Studies Center, 1971.

Vásquez, Librado Keno, and María Enriqueta Vásquez. Regional Dictionary of Chicano Slang. Austin: Jenkins, 1975.

Wesley, Howard D. "Ranchero Sayings of the Border," in Puro mexicano, ed. J. Frank Dobie. Texas Folklore Society Publications, 12. Austin: Texas Folklore Society, 1935. Pp. 211-220.

Shirley L. Arora
Department of Spanish and Portuguese
University of California
Los Angeles, CA 90095-1532


 
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