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PROVERBS AND PREJUDICE: 'EL INDIO' IN HISPANIC PROVERBIAL SPEECH

SHIRLEY L. ARORA

PROVERBS AND PREJUDICE:
EL INDIO IN HISPANIC PROVERBIAL SPEECH*

Some twenty years ago, in an article on "Slurs International," Alan Dundes observed that "a proverb or a joke told by members of one national group about another may be more responsible for attitudes held by the first group about the second than any other single factor" (Dundes 15). As his study makes clear, proverbial sayings and other kinds of folk stereotypes are not merely a passive reflection of attitudes toward ethnic or national groups; they play an active role in the creation or propagation of those attitudes. In keeping with the title of his article, the examples with which Dundes illustrates his remarks focus largely on national stereotypes, but he also takes care to point out that "slurs are equally common in referring to ethnic or other folk groups within a country as they are to national groups outside a country" (p. 17).

In a recent study of proverbial stereotyping, Wolfgang Mieder has traced the history, evolution, and meaning of the American proverb The only good Indian is a dead Indian from its nineteenth-century roots down to the present day. Though not, as he points out, the only North American proverb to encapsulate a stereotypic view of the Native American, it appears to be by far the most widely known and firmly entrenched, giving rise even today to variations on the same pattern that, while divergent in meaning and application, still preserve undertones of the original saying (Mieder 1993: 52). Yet another widely disseminated stereotype regarding the Native American appears in the phrase "Indian giver," referring either to someone who violates social rules by seeking to retrieve an item previously bestowed or--particularly in its earliest occurrences--to one who gives a gift in the expectation of receiving an even more valuable one in return. As a childhood taunt the phrase is no doubt repeated by its young users, as in the case of many such slurs, with little real awareness of its ethnic application; but the record of its currency in adult discourse, in more serious contexts, is a substantial one, dating back at least to the early eighteenth century (Mieder 1992: 329).





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Proverbs, Sayings and Popular Wisdom - Audio Proverbs in English and Romance Languages, Proverb Studies, Proverb Collections, International Proverb Bibliographies

A WORLD OF PROVERBS

De Proverbio – Latin for ‘About the Proverb’ – is a website devoted to proverbs in several languages. It was founded in January 1995 at the University of Tasmania, Australia. De Proverbio was the world’s first refereed electronic journal of international proverb studies. It’s inspiration was Proverbium: Yearbook of International Proverb Scholarship edited by Prof. Wolfgang Mieder at the University of Vermont. The Yearbook continued the tradition of Proverbium: Bulletin d’Information sur les Recherches Parémiologiques, published occasionally from 1965 to 1975 by the Society for Finnish Literature, Helsinki.

Recently, the website has added audio proverbs in six languages, read by native speakers.  Also available for the lovers of languages and their proverbial richess is a page of multilingual proverb crosswords.

Proverbs and Their Definition

From time immemorial proverbs have fascinated people of all ages and from all walks of life. As it happened throughout centuries, common people today still avail themselves of the proverb’s rich oral tradition to convey their culture and values, while scholars collect and study them from a wide range of angles: linguistic, social, psychological, political, historical and so on.

Proverbs by James Chapman - cat
A cat in mittens won’t catch mice

The problem of proverb definition is still open. However, it is broadly accepted that proverbs were born from man’s experience. And that they generally express, in a very succinct way, common-sense truths. They give sound advice and reflect the human condition. But, as we know, human nature is both good and bad and the latter is often mirrored by discriminatory proverbs, be they against women, different nationalities or particular social groups. For a thorough discussion of proverb definition, see Popular Views of the Proverb by Prof. Wolfgang Mieder. Another article which sheds some light on the proverb definition is The Wisdom of Many and the Wit of One by Archer Taylor.

Proverbs and Their Origin

As to the origin of proverbs we tend to assume that they were born in times when human society began to self-impose rules and embrace principles necessary for communal living. Research can trace them back only to the time when language was recorded by means of some type of writing. The Sumerian civilisation of more than five thousand years ago is the oldest known civilisation to have made use of proverbs, some of which have been passed on through its cuneiform inscriptions.

One such proverb, in its Latin version, is Canis festinans caecos parit catulos. It spread to other languages. The English translation is The hasty bitch brings forth blind whelps. In French, it became La chienne dans sa hâte a mis bas des chiots aveugles. In the Italian La gatta frettolosa fece i gattini ciechi, the bitch has been replaced by the cat. The Portuguese version is Cadelas apressadas parem cães tortos, and the Romanian, Căţeaua de pripă îşi naşte căţeii fără ochi.

Proverbs and Their Use

Apart from use on a wide scale in day-to-day speech, there is ample evidence that proverbs were essential tools in teaching and learning. The pedagogical use of proverbs was encountered first in Sumerian society and subsequently this use became widespread throughout Medieval Europe.

Proverbs by James Chapman - book
A book is like a garden carried in the pocket

Proverbs and proverbial expressions are found in religious manuscripts of the first half of the eighth century. The aim of introducing proverbs into religious texts was to help novices to learn Latin, and this practice became widespread by the tenth century.

The use of proverbs in teaching and learning was not circumscribed to England. Relatively new research attests to the use of proverbs in teaching in the eleventh century in Liège, France. In Italy the famous medical School of Salerno of the eleventh century formulated medical precepts which later became proverbs adopted by different cultures. Post prandium stabis, post coenam ambulabis was translated After dinner sit awhile, after supper walk a mile in English. In French became Après dîner repose un peu, après souper promène une mille, while in Italian Dopo pranzo riposar un poco, dopo cena passeggiar un miglio. The Spanish version is Después de yantar reposad un poco, después de cenar pasead una milla and the Portuguese Depois de jantar, dormir; depois de cear, passos mil.

Proverbs and Their Abuse

But from use comes abuse, as a Spanish proverb says.  There is no doubt that the capacity of the proverb to convey universal truths concisely led to their abuse and manipulation.

Hitler and his Nazi regime employed proverbs as emotional slogans for propaganda purposes and encouraged the publication of anti-semitic proverb collections. For a thorough analysis of this phenomenon, please read the fascinating article “ … as if I were the master of situation.” Proverbial Manipulation in Adolf Hitler by Prof. Wolfgang Mieder.

At the opposite end of the political spectrum, communist regimes of the past have not only manipulated proverbs, but also purged popular collections of features which did not reflect their political ends. The former Soviet regime is at the forefront of such actions. One type of manipulation described by Jean Breuillard in Proverbes et pouvoir politique: Le cas de l’U.R.S.S.  (published in “Richesse du proverbe”, Eds. François Suard and Claude Buridant. Lille: Université de Lille, 1984. II, 155-166). It consisted in modifying ancient proverbs like La vérité parcourt le monde (Truth spreads all over the world) into La vérité de Lénine parcourt le monde (Lenin’s truth spreads all over the world). As a result the new creation is unequivocably charged with a specific ideological message.

Manipulation did not stop at individual proverbs, it extended to entire collections. Vladimir Dal’s mid-nineteen century collection of Russian proverbs is such an example. Its first Soviet edition (1957) reduces the proverbs containing the word God from 283 to 7 only. Instead, those which express compassion for human weaknesses, such as alcoholism, disappear altogether. In more recent years, in Ceauşescu’s Romania, Proverbele românilor (published in 1877 by I. C. Hinţescu) suffered the same treatment. More than 150 proverbs were eliminated or changed in order to respond rigidly to the communist ideology.

Proverbs Across Time and Space

The Oxford Dictionary of English Proverbs states that foreign proverbs’ contribution to the English proverbial stock has enriched our language. Many proverbs of foreign origin were quickly absorbed into English life and have a rightful place in an English dictionary. Indeed, a close scrutiny of that dictionary reveals that more than two hundred and fifty proverbs are listed as first existing in Italian.

This is also true for other modern languages, particularly French and Spanish. The translation is not always literal. At times it is adapted to the new language and the resulting proverb is often enriched in its expression. For instance the Latin Homo sine pecunia est imago mortis (A man without money is the image of death) is rather closely translated in Italian as Uomo senza quattrini è un morto che cammina (A man without money is a dead man walking).

However, in other languages the metaphor changes, but not the meaning. In English the proverb becomes A man without money is a bow without an arrow, while in French Un homme sans argent / Est un loup sans dents (A man without money is a wolf without teeth) and an element of rhyme is introduced. The Romanian adaptation is a real poetic gem Omul fără bani e ca pasărea fără aripi; Când dă să zboare / Cade jos şi moare (A man without money is like a bird without wings; When he tries to fly / He falls down and dies). The concept is essentially the same: the man without money lacks something important…

Proverbs Today

Proverbs by James Chapman - egg and hen
The egg thinks it’s smarter than the hen

While proverbs are still used today in a traditional way, that is in speech, literature and teaching, they have found a new ever expanding use in the advertising industry and in the mass media. One example is Here today, gone tomorrow, which became Hair today, gone tomorrow in the hair-removal industry. In the mass media it has a variety of paraphrases such as Hear today, gone tomorrow or Heir today, gone tomorrow. Before the Barcelona Olympic Games the old proverb All roads lead to Rome became All roads lead to… Barcelona in many English language newspapers and magazines. A new phenomenon encountered in many languages nowadays and is undoubtedly a sign of the proverb’s resilience and vitality.

Important writers of the past, among them Goethe and Voltaire, have questioned the traditional wisdom of proverbs. That led to some proverb transformations. Prof. Wolfgang Mieder coined the term anti-proverb for all forms of creative proverb changes. They can be deliberate innovations, alterations, variations, parodies. Anti-proverbs are widely spread today, some living a short time, some even making their way into recent proverb collections. A new broom sweeps clean, but the old one knows the corners and Absence makes the heart grow fonder – for somebody else are considered anti-proverbs.

Proverbs and Their Collection

Apart from studies on individual and multilingual proverbs and proverbial expressions, you will find a few e-books on our website. I will mention a Brazilian collection and a dictionary of equivalent English and Romanian proverbs. Prof. Wolfgang Mieder’s yearly bibliographies are an invaluable tool for students and researchers. Given their widespread use over the millennia, it is no wonder that scholars of the past started assembling proverbs in collections. Aristotle is believed to be among the first paremiographers (collectors of proverbs), but, unfortunately, his collection was lost. In more recent times a great impetus to the collection of proverbs was given by Erasmus. His fame spread from Venice throughout Europe after the publication in 1508 of his Adagiorum Chiliades. This collection contained 3,260 proverbs drawn from classical authors.

The success of the book led to several augmented editions culminating with that of 1536, which contains 4,151 proverbs. Erasmus’ work was translated into several European languages. While it became the model for future proverb collections in those languages, they were widely copied and translated.

One good example of such a practice is the 1591 Italian collection Giardino di Ricreatione, nel quale crescono fronde, fiori e frutti, vaghe, leggiadri e soavi, sotto nome di sei miglia proverbii, e piacevoli riboboli Italiani, colti e scelti da Giovanni Florio. And two decades later appeared in French as Le Jardin de Récréation, au quel croissent rameaux, fleurs et fruits très-beaux, gentils et souefs, soubz le nom de Six mille proverbes et plaisantes rencontres françoises, recueillis et triéez par GOMÈS DE TRIER, non seulement utiles mais délectables pour tous espritz désireux de la très-noble et copieuse langue françoise, nouvellement mis en lumière, à Amsterdam, par PAUL DE RAVESTEYN.

Proverbs and Fun

Proverbs by James Chapman - duck
If the world flooded, it wouldn’t matter to the duck

On the less academic side, you can test your knowledge of languages by solving our bilingual or multilingual crosswords. Or, you can listen to our featured proverbs in 6 languages – English, French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian and Spanish. Also, enjoy sharing them with your friends. Some were posted on Twitter as comments to political events of the day.

Painters in Renaissance time, from Hieronymus Bosch to Pieter Bruegel, with his famous Netherlandish Proverbs, were attracted by the subject.

Modern artists like James Chapman illustrated recently proverbs from other world languages with hilarious cartoons. See some of his images on this page.

Just as we often tend, in English, to restrict the term "American" to the United States, so also we may sometimes unwittingly equate the term "Native American" with "Native North American"; but of course the indigenous peoples of what are now the United States and Canada constituted only a fraction of the population with which Europeans came into contact from the end of the fifteenth century onward. The proverbial speech of Hispanic America preserves, even today, numerous traces of the interaction between explorers, conquerors, or settlers and the native populations they found in the various regions of the so-called New World, while printed sources record others that have apparently disappeared from current usage. Many, though not all, of these expressions involve stereotypes of the Native American, some resembling those found in English, others diverging markedly from them.

Stereotypic images of the Native American--North and South--are present from the earliest encounters, and from the outset they involved contrasting sets of generalizations. The recently-concluded Columbian Quincentennial has refreshed our recollection of Columbus' description of the Caribbean islanders whom he met on his first voyage: gentle people, innocent of all evil, timorous, ignorant of murder or even of weapons, affectionate, smiling, credulous, quick to learn and to remember, and of course "buenos servidores," good servants.[1] Bartolomé de las Casas, famed for his defense of the Indian (and the one to whom we owe our knowledge of the contents of Columbus' diary of that first voyage) concurred with this initial assessment and added some superlatives of his own:

God made all the peoples of this area, many and varied as they are, as open and as innocent as can be imagined. The simplest people in the world--unassuming, long-suffering, unassertive, and submissive--they are without malice or guile, and are utterly faithful and obedient both to their own native lords and to the Spaniards in whose service they now find themselves. Never quarrelsome or belligerent or boisterous, they harbour no grudges and do not seek to settle old scores; indeed, the notions of revenge, rancour, and hatred are quite foreign to them. . . They are also among the poorest people on the face of the earth; they own next to nothing and have no urge to acquire material possessions. As a result they are neither ambitious nor greedy, and are totally uninterested in worldly power.[2]

"Innocent and pure in mind" and at the same time possessing a "lively intelligence" (ibid.), the indigenous peoples were, in Las Casas' estimation, ideal candidates for conversion to the Catholic faith.

The full text of this article is published in De Proverbio - Issue 2:1995, an electronic book, available from amazon.com and other leading Internet booksellers.

Armed resistance on the part of the indigenous population also continued until the 1880s in Chile, Argentina's neighbor on the other side of the Andean mountain range, but proverbial allusions to the violent confrontation there appear to be lacking, or at least have not been recorded in the relatively limited published sources available. One large regional dictionary notes that the term indio may be applied figuratively to anyone who exhibits "the defects considered to belong to the Indian," that is, to someone who is "terco, rebelde, poco comunicativo, incivilizado" ("stubborn, rebellious, uncommunicative, uncivilized") (Morales III 2460). The same source lists several variations of allusions to the Indian's supposed penchant for abrupt loss of temper or self-control, e.g., le afloró el indio, "the Indian in him came to the surface"; and also one proverb that is widely recorded elsewhere, Indio comido, indio ido, roughly translated as "Once the Indian has eaten, he leaves" (ibid.). The proverb will be considered at greater length below.

It is in two Central American countries that we find the nearest parallel to the proverb The only good Indian is a dead Indian, in its apparent sanction of deadly violence against Native Americans. The Nicaraguan Al indio, la culebra y el zanate, dice la ley que se mate, "An Indian, a snake, and a grackle, the law says they should be killed" (Peña 94) is described by the collector as having encomendero overtones, in its implication that the Indian is as "pernicious" as the dangerous reptile or the crop-threatening bird. In a Guatemalan variant of the same dictum the three supposedly legitimate targets of destruction are the Indian, the "guanaco," and the grackle: Indio, guanaco, y zanate, manda la ley que se mate (Sandoval I 671); guanaco does not refer here to the Andean relative of the llama, but is a regional term variously used to refer to a provincial or small-town inhabitant; an individual from any Central American nation other than Guatemala; or--most broadly--a fool or a stupid person (Sandoval I 591f.).

The two sayings just cited are representative of a technique used in a number of proverbs that, by grouping el indio with various kinds of animals, imply that the Native American is less than human, or at least occupies a low place on the scale of humanity. Few sayings are as blunt as the Venezuelan Indio no es gente, ni cazabe es pan, "An Indian is not a person, and manioc bread is not bread" (Erminy 57) or the Mexican Indios y burros, todos son unos, "Indians and donkeys are all one and the same" (Rubio I 263), but the depiction of qualities shared by Indians and non-human animals achieves the same effect. Usually the qualities cited are undesirable, but even when the basis of comparison is more positive, as in El indio y el perro nunca se pierden, "An Indian and a dog never get lost" (Peña 94), the effect is to suggest the "animal-like" nature of the Indian, not only in this regard but also perhaps in other respects as well.[10] The technique is, to be sure, common to many languages (cf., in English, "An Indian, a partridge, and a spruce tree can't be tamed" [Mieder 1992: 329]) and lends itself to a wide variety of proverbial "targets."[11]

More typical of proverbs using the technique of comparing the Indian to an animal is the Colombian Indio, mula y mujer, si no te la han hecho te la van a hacer--"An Indian, a mule and a woman, if they haven't done it to you yet, they will" (Acuña 53), which actually constitutes a kind of double-barreled attack on either Native Americans or women or both. (Cf. a Peruvian variant that uses the same pattern to express distrust of government officials: Subprefecto, mula, y mujer, si no te la han hecho te la van a hacer, "A subprefect, a mule, and a woman . . .[etc.]," [Vargas 86].) The somewhat ambiguous New Mexican proverb Indio, pájaro y conejo, no metas en tu casa aunque te mueras de viejo, "An Indian, a bird, and a rabbit, don't take them into your house even if you are dying of old age" (Cobos no. 843) is explained by the collector as an expression of the "colonial feeling that Indians were untrustworthy," while a similarly cryptic Mexican variant, Indio, pájaro y conejo, en tu casa ni aún de viejo, "An Indian, a bird, and rabbit--[don't have them] in your house, even in old age" elicits from the collector, in lieu of a definition, the almost equally vague comment that the real target of the proverb is not the bird that requires care or the rabbit that may cause damage, but simply the Indian, who never ceases to pay the price for being what he is (Rubio I 262). The same collector provides, however, "another form" of the proverb in which the meaning is more explicit: Indio, pájaro y conejo no conocen gratitud, "An Indian, a bird, and a rabbit know nothing of gratitude" (ibid.).

Ingratitude is also the charge implied in the Nicaraguan El indio y el alcaraván, apenas echan alas, se van, "The Indian and the stone curlew, as soon as they grow wings, they leave" (Cuadra 300) and its expanded variant, also from Nicaragua, Indio, piche o alcaraván, no se crían porque se van, "An Indian, a tree duck, and a stone curlew, don't raise them [in your household] because they'll run away" (Peña 94). Among domestic animals the cat, in particular, is often accused of failing to reciprocate the care or affection it receives. A proverb recorded from Peru and Bolivia proclaims forthrightly: El indio y el gato, animal ingrato, "An Indian and a cat, ungrateful animals" (García no. 628; Fernández 193), and a Panamanian variant adds a dove to make an ungrateful trio: Indio, paloma, y gato, animal ingrato (Aguilera 353, 606). In this latter instance the collector, far from disassociating herself from the stereotype contained in the proverb, remarks that the saying "expresses something very true when it says that the animals named are ungrateful" since it is well known that Indians hired for domestic service--especially those from the island of San Blas--are in the habit of leaving their employment without so much as a farewell, never to return again (Aguilera 606). (The Indians of San Blas are a prominent segment of Panama's "tribal indigenous population," which in 1978 was estimated at 121,000, or close to 7% of the population as a whole.)

The full text of this article is published in De Proverbio - Issue 2:1995, an electronic book, available from amazon.com and other leading Internet booksellers.

Dundes raises the question, in the article cited at the beginning of this paper, of the net effect, or even the advisability, of focusing scholarly attention on racial or international slurs--whether they be in the form of jokes, proverbs, or some other folkloric genre--but concludes that the potential benefits outweigh the possible disadvantages of publicizing such material (Dundes 38). It follows that an examination of the ways in which various regional traditions have sought to stereotype el indio and hence to justify the conduct of individuals and of society toward the Native American, can lead to a recognition of the fallacies expressed in such stereotypes and eventually, perhaps, to their weakening and to their ultimate disappearance from proverbial speech and from society as a whole.

 

Notes

*Previously published in Proverbium, 11 (1994), pp. 27-46

  1. These and similar observations are found throughout the diary of Columbus' first voyage, but see in particular the entries for October 12-13, December 16, and December 25, 1492. A convenient English translation is: Christopher Columbus, Journal of the First Voyage to America, introd. by Van Wyck Brooks (New York: Albert & Charles Boni, 1924), pp. 23-28, 116-120, and 142-151.
  1. The English version of this passage from the preface to Las Casas' Brevísima relación de la destruición de las Indias is taken from the translation by Nigel Griffin, published with the title A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies (London: Penguin Books, 1992), pp. 9-10. The Brevísima relación has been published many times and in many languages since its original printing in 1552; a conveniently accessible version in Spanish is included in the volume of Las Casas' writings entitled Opúsculos, cartas y memoriales, vol. 5 of his Obras escogidas, Biblioteca de Autores Españoles no. 110 (Madrid: Atlas, 1958), pp. 134-181. The passage quoted is on p. 136.

  2. Oviedo's views are expressed at various points in his lengthy Historia general y natural de las Indias, first published in 1535 (Biblioteca de Autores Españoles, Vols. 117-121 [Madrid: Atlas, 1957]). The work as a whole has yet to be translated into English. For representative passages involving the qualities cited here, see Bk. 3, Ch. 6 (Vol. 117, p. 67 in the Biblioteca de Autores Españoles edition), in which Oviedo denounces those Spaniards who overwork or mistreat the Indians entrusted to their care, but follows that criticism with a generally negative portrait of the Native American. In contrast, in Bk. 6, Ch. 41, Oviedo recounts with admiration the extraordinary love shown by an Indian woman for her husband, who had been sentenced to be executed for his part in a local rebellion (pp. 199-201). José Miranda's assessment of Oviedo's opinions appears in the introduction to his edition of Oviedo's Sumario de la natural historia de las Indias (Mexico, D.F.: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1950), p. 68.

  3. Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation (New York: Routledge, 1992), pp. 6-7. Pratt uses the term to refer to "the space of colonial encounters, the space in which peoples geographically and historically separated come into contact with each other and establish ongoing relations, usually involving conditions of coercion, radical inequality, and intractable conflict" (p. 6).

  4. Two other phrases listed in the entry for indio--caer de indio, "to fall [for something] like an Indian," and subírsele a uno el indio, which may be roughly translated as "for the Indian [in one] to rise up"--are identified as American (i.e., Spanish American) rather than Peninsular Spanish. I will consider them along with other New World sayings later on.

  5. Under the encomienda system, groups of Indians were assigned to Spanish conquerors or settlers, for whom they were required to labor and by whom they were to be protected, "civilized," and Christianized. The Laws of Burgos, promulgated by King Ferdinand in 1512, stipulated that "each Indian was to be given a house for himself and his family and a farm for raising crops and cattle. . .The Indians were to be persuaded to wear clothing, like 'reasonable men.' The children of each town were to be brought together twice a week for religious instruction. They were also to be taught reading, writing, the sign of the Cross, the confession, the Pater Noster, the Credo, and the Salve Regina; and, of course, they were to be baptized and forced to attend religious services" (Lesley Byrd Simpson, The Encomienda in New Spain: The Beginning of Spanish Mexico, rev. ed. [Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1966], p. 11). For a more detailed overview of the Laws of Burgos, see Chapter 3 of the same work, pp. 29-38. As the result of widespread abuse of the provisions governing the encomiendas, even after repeated attempts at reform, the term encomendero has come to symbolize for many the worst degree of exploitation of, and cruelty toward, the indigenous peoples of America.

  6. With the exception of the comparative figure for the 1950s, all data mentioned here are from the Statistical Abstract of Latin America, ed. James W. Willkie, co-eds. Carlos Alberto Contreras and Christof Anders Weber (Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center, 1993), vol. 30, pt. 1, p. 150. A footnote identifies the source of the data as an article published by the Inter-American Indian Institute in 1979. The estimates for the countries of Central America are labelled as "unreliable." The population figure for the 1950s is taken from the Statistical Abstract for 1976 (vol. 17), ed. James Wilkie and co-ed. Paul Turovsky, pp. 83f.

  7. See, for example, the article by Martin Edwin Andersen entitled "Early Warning from Chiapas," in the Los Angeles Times, Jan. 6, 1994, pt. B, p. 7.

  8. Statistical Abstract, vol. 30, p. 150. The figures for the United States are taken from the 1980 census.

  9. For a consideration of the effects of this kind of "transference" in relation to another set of proverbial metaphors, see Shirley L. Arora, "A Woman and a Guitar: Variations on a Folk Metaphor," Proverbium: Yearbook of International Proverb Scholarship 10 (1993), pp. 21-36, but especially pp. 21-23; reprinted in De Proverbio: An Electronic Journal of International Proverb Studies, Volume 1, Number 2, 1995.

  10. Numerous Spanish proverbs concerning women adopt this pattern, e.g., La mujer y la oveja, a casa antes de anochezca, "Women and sheep should be home before dark" (Jara 247); A la mujer y al can, el palo en una mano y en la otra el pan, "For women and dogs, a stick in one hand and bread in the other" (Jara 279), El ánade, la mujer y la cabra, es mala cosa siendo magra, "A duck, a woman, and a goat are bad if they are thin" (Jara 285).
 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Annotations are by author's first surname and page or number; second surnames are used only when two or more authors share the same first surname. Multiple references by the same author are distinguished by publication date.

Abad de Santillán, Diego. Diccionario de argentinismos de ayer y de hoy. Buenos Aires: Tipográfica Editora Argentina, 1976.

Acuña, Luis Alberto. Refranero colombiano. Biblioteca de Folklore Colombiano, 2. Bogotá: Argra, 1947.

Aguilar Paz, Jesús. El refranero hondureño. Tegucigalpa: Guaymuras, 1981.

Aguilera P., Luisita. Refranero panameño; contribución a la paremiología hispanoamericana. Santiago de Chile, 1955.

Alario di Filippo, M[ario]. Léxicon de colombianismos. 2nd ed. 2 vols. Bogotá: Banco de la República, 1983.

Allport, Gordon W. The Nature of Prejudice. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1954.

Aranda, Charles. Dichos: Proverbs and Sayings from the Spanish. Rev. ed. Santa Fe: Sunstone Press, 1977.

Armas, Daniel. Diccionario de la expresión popular guatemalteca. Guatemala City: [Tip. Nacional], 1971.

Cadavid Uribe, Gonzalo. Oyendo conversar al pueblo: Acotaciones al lenguaje popular antioqueño. [Bogotá: Impr. de la Penitenciaría Central de "La Picota"], 1953.

Carrera Sibila, Antonio. Del saber popular venezolano. Cumaná: Universidad de Oriente, 1974.

Carvalho-Neto, Paulo. El folklore de las luchas sociales: Un ensayo de folklore y marxismo. Mexico, D.F.: Siglo Veintiuno, 1973.

Castellón, Hildebrando A. Diccionario de nicaraguanismos. [Managua: Talleres Nacionales], 1939.

Cobos, Rubén. Refranes: Southwestern Spanish Proverbs. Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico Press, 1985.

Conde, Manuel. Dichos ciertos ... y ciertos dichos. Mexico, D.F.: B. Costa- Amic, 1971.

Correas, Gonzalo. Vocabulario de refranes y frases proverbiales [1627]. Ed. Louis Combet. Bordeaux: Institut d'Etudes Ibériques et Ibéroaméricaines, Université de Bordeaux, 1967. Orthography has been standardized.

Cruz Brache, José A. Cinco mil seiscientos refranes y frases de uso común entre los dominicanos. Santo Domingo: Galaxia, 1978.

Cuadra, Pablo Antonio. Muestrario del folklore nicaragüense. [Managua]: Banco de América, 1978.

Deive, Carlos. "El prejuicio racial en el folklore dominicano." Boletín del Museo del Hombre Dominicano, Año 4, No. 8 (1976-7), 75-96.

Devia M., Misael. "Album de modismos, giros y refranes del campesino tolimense." Revista Colombiana de Folklore, Segunda Epoca, 4 (1964-1965), 11-188.

Dis, Emilio. Código lunfardo. Buenos Aires: Caburé, [1976].

Dubuc de Isea, Lourdes. Romería por el folklore boconés. Mérida (Ven.): Universidad de los Andes, 1966.

Dundes, Alan. "Slurs International: Folk Comparisons of Ethnicity and National Character." Southern Follklore Quarterly 39 (1975), 15-38.

Erminy Arismendi, Santos. Refranes que se oyen y dicen en Venezuela. Caracas: [Editorial Oceánida, 195-?].

Fernández Naranjo, Nicolás, and Dora Gómez de Fernández. Diccionario de bolivianismos. 2nd ed. La Paz: Universidad de San Andrés, 1964.

García Corzo, Samuel E. Setecientos cincuenta refranes, proverbios, máximas, sentencias, adagios y dichos, recopilados en la "capital arqueológica" de Sud América. Cuzco: [Imprenta Garcilaso], 1955.

Glazer, Mark, comp. A Dictionary of Mexican American Proverbs. New York: Greenwood Press, 1987.

Gómez Maganda, Alejandro. ¡Como dice el dicho!: refranes y dichos mexicanos. 2 vols. Mexico, D.F., 1963.

Granada, Daniel. Reseña histórico-descriptiva de antiguas y modernas supersticiones del Río de la Plata. 2nd ed. Buenos Aires: Kraft, [1959].

---. Vocabulario rioplatense razonado. 2nd ed. Montevideo: Imprenta Rural, 1890.

Guarnieri, Juan Carlos. Sabiduría y folklore en el lenguaje campesino rioplatense: Refranes, sentencias, dichos y frases hechas, aclaradas y comentadas. Montevideo: Lidela, 1971.

Hidalgo, José Nicolás. Un puñado de refranes criollos usados en el Ecuador. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1952.

Jara Ortega, José. Más de dos mil quinientos refranes relativos a la mujer soltera, casada, viuda y suegra. Madrid: Instituto Editorial Reus, 1953.

Keller, Andrea. Dichos de aquí y frases de allá. Mexico, D.F.: Libra, 1981.

León Rey, José Antonio. Del saber del pueblo: adivinanzas, supersticiones, y refranes. Bogotá: Instituto Caro y Cuervo, 1985.

León, Victor. Diccionario de argot español y lenguaje popular. Madrid: Alianza, 1980.

Malaret, Augusto. Diccionario de americanismos. 3rd ed. Buenos Aires: Emecé, [1946].

---. "Paremiología americana." Universidad Católica Bolivariana, Publicación Bimestral, 9 (Jul-Sept. 1943), 347-367.

Martínez Kleiser, Luis. Refranero general ideológico español. Madrid: Real Academia Española, 1953.

Mieder, Wolfgang. "'The Only Good Indian Is a Dead Indian': History and Meaning of a Proverbial Stereotype." Journal of American Folklore, 106 (1993), 38-60; reprinted in De Proverbio: An Electronic Journal of International Proverb Studies, Volume 1, Number 1, 1995.

Mieder, Wolfgang, Stewart A. Kingsbury, and Kelsie B. Harder, eds. A Dictionary of American Proverbs. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Molina Molina, Flavio. Diccionario de dichos agudos y oportunos. Hermosillo (Mex.): Instituto Kino, 1985.

Morales Pettorino, Félix, Oscar Quiroz Mejías, and Juan Pérez Alvarez. Diccionario ejemplificado de chilenismos. 4 vols. Valparaíso: Academia Superior de Ciencias Pedagógicas, 1984-1987.

Moya, Ismael. Refranero: Refranes, proverbios, adagios, frases proverbiales, modismos refranescos, giros y otras formas paremiológicas tradicionales en la República Argentina. Estudios Sobre Materiales de la Colección de Folklore, 2. Buenos Aires: Instituto de Literatura Argentina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 1944.

Norrick, Neal R. How Proverbs Mean: Semantic Studies in English Proverbs. Berlin: Mouton, 1982.

Oliver, Juan Manuel. Diccionario de argot. Madrid: Sena, [1985?].

Paredes Candia, Antonio. Literatura folklórica (recogida de la tradición oral boliviana). La Paz: A. Gamarra, 1953.

Paredes, Américo. "Proverbs and Ethnic Stereotypes." Proverbium (Helsinki), no. 15 (1970), 95-97.

Peña Hernández, Enrique. Folklore de Nicaragua. Masaya, Nicaragua: Editorial Unión, 1968.

Pinzón, Carlos Ernesto, and Graciela Fandiño. Dichos y refranes oídos en Colombia. Bogotá: Instituto Colombiano de Cultura, 1973.

Polkinhorn, Harry, Alfredo Velasco, and Malcolm Lambert. El libro de caló. Rev. ed. [Oakland, Calif.]: Floricanto Press, 1986.

Real Academia Española. Diccionario de la lengua española. 20th ed. 2 vols. Madrid: Real Academia Española, 1984.

Roback, Abraham A. Dictionary of International Slurs (Ethnophaulisms) with a Supplementary Essay on Aspects of Ethnic Prejudice. 1944. Rpt. Waukesha, Wisconsin: Maledicta Press, 1979.

Rodríguez Demorizi, Emilio. Refranero dominicano. Rome: G. Menaglia, 1950.

Rodríguez Marín, Francisco. Más de veintiún mil refranes castellanos no contenidos en la copiosa colección del maestro Gonzalo Correas. Madrid: Revista de Archivos, Bibliotecas, y Museos, 1926.

Rubio, Darío. Refranes, proverbios y dichos y dicharachos mejicanos. 2nd ed. 2 vols. Mexico, D.F.: A. P. Márquez, 1940.

Sánchez Boudy, José. Diccionario de cubanismos más usuales (como habla el cubano). Miami: Ediciones Universal, 1978.

Sandoval, Lisandro. Semántica guatemalense o diccionario de guatemaltequismos. 2 vols. Guatemala City: Tip. Nacional, 1941-1942.

Sbarbi, José M. Gran diccionario de refranes de la lengua española. Buenos Aires: Librería "El Ateneo," 1943.

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Shirley L. Arora
Department of Spanish and Portuguese
University of California
Los Angeles, California 90095-1532
USA


 
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