"(DON'T) THROW THE BABY OUT WITH THE BATHWATER":
The Americanization of a German Proverb and Proverbial
In memoriam Wayland D. Hand
When the proverb "Don't throw the baby out with the bath
water" or its parallel proverbial expression "To throw the
baby out with the bath water" appear today in Anglo-American
oral communication or in books, magazines, newspapers,
advertisements or cartoons, hardly anybody would surmise
that this common metaphorical phrase is actually of German
origin and of relatively recent use in the English language.
It had its first written occurrence in Thomas Murner's
(1475-1537) versified satirical book Narrenbeschwörung (1512) which contains as its
eighty-first short chapter entitled "Das kindt mit dem bad
vß schitten" (To throw the baby out with the bath
water) a treatise on fools who by trying to rid themselves
of a bad thing succeed in destroying whatever good there was
as well. In seventy-six rhymed lines the proverbial phrase
is repeated three times as a folkloric leitmotif, and there
is also the first illustration of the expression as a
woodcut depicting quite literally a woman who is pouring her
baby out with the bath water.1 Murner also cites the phrase repeatedly in later works and
this rather frequent use might be an indication that the
proverbial expression was already in oral currency towards
the end of the fifteenth century in Germany.
There is no doubt that the proverbial text gained rapid
and universal acceptance in the satirical and polemic
literature of the Age of the Reformation. Martin Luther
(1483-1546) for example changed the proverbial expression in
his scholarly lecture about Salomo from 1526 to a proverb by
adding the formula "Man soll ..." (One should, One must, or
Don't) to it: "Man sol [sic] das kind nicht mit dem
bad ausgiessen" (Don't throw the baby out with the bath
water).2 It is of interest
to note here that Archer Taylor in an article on "The
Proverbial Formula 'Man soll' ..." (1930) takes this
particular expression to point out that "the formula was
used to make nonce-proverbs out of proverbial phrases. In
'Man soll das Kind nicht mit dem Bade ausschütten', the
starting point is the phrase 'das Kind mit dem Bade
ausschütten' and not the proverb. It may be possible to
dispute whether the phrase or the proverb was first in any
particular instance, but the general method of forming
nonce-proverbs from phrases remains."3 While Taylor does not explicitly refer to Luther, he
certainly is correct about his statement that the formula
"Man soll ..." in general makes proverbs out of proverbial
expressions. But even Luther preferred to use it on several
occasions in its phraseological form, enabling him to employ
the metaphor for polemic purposes rather than as didactic
wisdom which the proverb would express.
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De Proverbio – Latin for ‘About the Proverb’ – is a website devoted to proverbs in several languages. It was founded in January 1995 at the University of Tasmania, Australia. De Proverbio was the world’s first refereed electronic journal of international proverb studies. It’s inspiration was Proverbium: Yearbook of International Proverb Scholarship edited by Prof. Wolfgang Mieder at the University of Vermont. The Yearbook continued the tradition of Proverbium: Bulletin d’Information sur les Recherches Parémiologiques, published occasionally from 1965 to 1975 by the Society for Finnish Literature, Helsinki.
Recently, the website has added audio proverbs in six languages, read by native speakers. Also available for the lovers of languages and their proverbial richess is a page of multilingual proverb crosswords.
Proverbs and Their Definition
From time immemorial proverbs have fascinated people of all ages and from all walks of life. As it happened throughout centuries, common people today still avail themselves of the proverb’s rich oral tradition to convey their culture and values, while scholars collect and study them from a wide range of angles: linguistic, social, psychological, political, historical and so on.
The problem of proverb definition is still open. However, it is broadly accepted that proverbs were born from man’s experience. And that they generally express, in a very succinct way, common-sense truths. They give sound advice and reflect the human condition. But, as we know, human nature is both good and bad and the latter is often mirrored by discriminatory proverbs, be they against women, different nationalities or particular social groups. For a thorough discussion of proverb definition, see Popular Views of the Proverb by Prof. Wolfgang Mieder. Another article which sheds some light on the proverb definition is The Wisdom of Many and the Wit of One by Archer Taylor.
Proverbs and Their Origin
As to the origin of proverbs we tend to assume that they were born in times when human society began to self-impose rules and embrace principles necessary for communal living. Research can trace them back only to the time when language was recorded by means of some type of writing. The Sumerian civilisation of more than five thousand years ago is the oldest known civilisation to have made use of proverbs, some of which have been passed on through its cuneiform inscriptions.
One such proverb, in its Latin version, is Canis festinans caecos parit catulos. It spread to other languages. The English translation is The hasty bitch brings forth blind whelps. In French, it became La chienne dans sa hâte a mis bas des chiots aveugles. In the Italian La gatta frettolosa fece i gattini ciechi, the bitch has been replaced by the cat. The Portuguese version is Cadelas apressadas parem cães tortos, and the Romanian, Căţeaua de pripă îşi naşte căţeii fără ochi.
Proverbs and Their Use
Apart from use on a wide scale in day-to-day speech, there is ample evidence that proverbs were essential tools in teaching and learning. The pedagogical use of proverbs was encountered first in Sumerian society and subsequently this use became widespread throughout Medieval Europe.
Proverbs and proverbial expressions are found in religious manuscripts of the first half of the eighth century. The aim of introducing proverbs into religious texts was to help novices to learn Latin, and this practice became widespread by the tenth century.
The use of proverbs in teaching and learning was not circumscribed to England. Relatively new research attests to the use of proverbs in teaching in the eleventh century in Liège, France. In Italy the famous medical School of Salerno of the eleventh century formulated medical precepts which later became proverbs adopted by different cultures. Post prandium stabis, post coenam ambulabis was translated After dinner sit awhile, after supper walk a mile in English. In French became Après dîner repose un peu, après souper promène une mille, while in Italian Dopo pranzo riposar un poco, dopo cena passeggiar un miglio. The Spanish version is Después de yantar reposad un poco, después de cenar pasead una milla and the Portuguese Depois de jantar, dormir; depois de cear, passos mil.
Proverbs and Their Abuse
But from use comes abuse, as a Spanish proverb says. There is no doubt that the capacity of the proverb to convey universal truths concisely led to their abuse and manipulation.
Hitler and his Nazi regime employed proverbs as emotional slogans for propaganda purposes and encouraged the publication of anti-semitic proverb collections. For a thorough analysis of this phenomenon, please read the fascinating article “ … as if I were the master of situation.” Proverbial Manipulation in Adolf Hitler by Prof. Wolfgang Mieder.
At the opposite end of the political spectrum, communist regimes of the past have not only manipulated proverbs, but also purged popular collections of features which did not reflect their political ends. The former Soviet regime is at the forefront of such actions. One type of manipulation described by Jean Breuillard in Proverbes et pouvoir politique: Le cas de l’U.R.S.S. (published in “Richesse du proverbe”, Eds. François Suard and Claude Buridant. Lille: Université de Lille, 1984. II, 155-166). It consisted in modifying ancient proverbs like La vérité parcourt le monde (Truth spreads all over the world) into La vérité de Lénine parcourt le monde (Lenin’s truth spreads all over the world). As a result the new creation is unequivocably charged with a specific ideological message.
Manipulation did not stop at individual proverbs, it extended to entire collections. Vladimir Dal’s mid-nineteen century collection of Russian proverbs is such an example. Its first Soviet edition (1957) reduces the proverbs containing the word God from 283 to 7 only. Instead, those which express compassion for human weaknesses, such as alcoholism, disappear altogether. In more recent years, in Ceauşescu’s Romania, Proverbele românilor (published in 1877 by I. C. Hinţescu) suffered the same treatment. More than 150 proverbs were eliminated or changed in order to respond rigidly to the communist ideology.
Proverbs Across Time and Space
The Oxford Dictionary of English Proverbs states that foreign proverbs’ contribution to the English proverbial stock has enriched our language. Many proverbs of foreign origin were quickly absorbed into English life and have a rightful place in an English dictionary. Indeed, a close scrutiny of that dictionary reveals that more than two hundred and fifty proverbs are listed as first existing in Italian.
This is also true for other modern languages, particularly French and Spanish. The translation is not always literal. At times it is adapted to the new language and the resulting proverb is often enriched in its expression. For instance the Latin Homo sine pecunia est imago mortis (A man without money is the image of death) is rather closely translated in Italian as Uomo senza quattrini è un morto che cammina (A man without money is a dead man walking).
However, in other languages the metaphor changes, but not the meaning. In English the proverb becomes A man without money is a bow without an arrow, while in French Un homme sans argent / Est un loup sans dents (A man without money is a wolf without teeth) and an element of rhyme is introduced. The Romanian adaptation is a real poetic gem Omul fără bani e ca pasărea fără aripi; Când dă să zboare / Cade jos şi moare (A man without money is like a bird without wings; When he tries to fly / He falls down and dies). The concept is essentially the same: the man without money lacks something important…
While proverbs are still used today in a traditional way, that is in speech, literature and teaching, they have found a new ever expanding use in the advertising industry and in the mass media. One example is Here today, gone tomorrow, which became Hair today, gone tomorrow in the hair-removal industry. In the mass media it has a variety of paraphrases such as Hear today, gone tomorrow or Heir today, gone tomorrow. Before the Barcelona Olympic Games the old proverb All roads lead to Rome became All roads lead to… Barcelona in many English language newspapers and magazines. A new phenomenon encountered in many languages nowadays and is undoubtedly a sign of the proverb’s resilience and vitality.
Important writers of the past, among them Goethe and Voltaire, have questioned the traditional wisdom of proverbs. That led to some proverb transformations. Prof. Wolfgang Mieder coined the term anti-proverb for all forms of creative proverb changes. They can be deliberate innovations, alterations, variations, parodies. Anti-proverbs are widely spread today, some living a short time, some even making their way into recent proverb collections. A new broom sweeps clean, but the old one knows the corners and Absence makes the heart grow fonder – for somebody else are considered anti-proverbs.
Proverbs and Their Collection
Apart from studies on individual and multilingual proverbs and proverbial expressions, you will find a few e-books on our website. I will mention a Brazilian collection and a dictionary of equivalent English and Romanian proverbs. Prof. Wolfgang Mieder’s yearly bibliographies are an invaluable tool for students and researchers. Given their widespread use over the millennia, it is no wonder that scholars of the past started assembling proverbs in collections. Aristotle is believed to be among the first paremiographers (collectors of proverbs), but, unfortunately, his collection was lost. In more recent times a great impetus to the collection of proverbs was given by Erasmus. His fame spread from Venice throughout Europe after the publication in 1508 of his Adagiorum Chiliades. This collection contained 3,260 proverbs drawn from classical authors.
The success of the book led to several augmented editions culminating with that of 1536, which contains 4,151 proverbs. Erasmus’ work was translated into several European languages. While it became the model for future proverb collections in those languages, they were widely copied and translated.
One good example of such a practice is the 1591 Italian collection Giardino di Ricreatione, nel quale crescono fronde, fiori e frutti, vaghe, leggiadri e soavi, sotto nome di sei miglia proverbii, e piacevoli riboboli Italiani, colti e scelti da Giovanni Florio. And two decades later appeared in French as Le Jardin de Récréation, au quel croissent rameaux, fleurs et fruits très-beaux, gentils et souefs, soubz le nom de Six mille proverbes et plaisantes rencontres françoises, recueillis et triéez par GOMÈS DE TRIER, non seulement utiles mais délectables pour tous espritz désireux de la très-noble et copieuse langue françoise, nouvellement mis en lumière, à Amsterdam, par PAUL DE RAVESTEYN.
Proverbs and Fun
On the less academic side, you can test your knowledge of languages by solving our bilingual or multilingual crosswords. Or, you can listen to our featured proverbs in 6 languages – English, French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian and Spanish. Also, enjoy sharing them with your friends. Some were posted on Twitter as comments to political events of the day.
Painters in Renaissance time, from Hieronymus Bosch to Pieter Bruegel, with his famous Netherlandish Proverbs, were attracted by the subject.
Modern artists like James Chapman illustrated recently proverbs from other world languages with hilarious cartoons. See some of his images on this page.
Already in 1541 the proverbial expression appears in
Sebastian Franck's (1499-1542) early major proverb
collection Sprichwörter / Schöne / Weise /
Herrliche Clugreden / und Hoffsprüch as "Das kindt
mit dem bad außschütten,"4 and from there it has found its way into all German
paremiographical dictionaries. It has also been documented
numerous times in the literary works of such well-known
authors as Jörg Wickram (1505-1562), Johannes Nas
(1534-1590), Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), Andreas Gryphius
(1616-1664), Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz (1751-1792),
Gottfried August Bürger (1747-1794), Johann Wolfgang
von Goethe (1749-1832), Jeremias Gotthelf (1797-1854), Karl
Friedrich Wilhelm Wander (1803-1879), Otto von Bismarck
(1815-1898), Theodor Fontane (1819-1898), Thomas Mann
(1875-1955), Heinrich Böll (1917-1985), Günter
Grass (born 1927), and many others. This is not the place to
comment on these interesting references, save to point out
that they, as well as the appearance of the proverb and the
proverbial phrase in proverb collections, clearly attest to
their common currency among the German speaking and writing
population. In fact, judging by their frequent occurrence in
modern German aphorisms, anti-proverbs, headlines, slogans,
etc., it can be stated that the two forms of this proverbial
metaphor belong to the most popular examples of German folk
But when, how and why did this proverbial expression and
proverb find their way into the English language where they
are today also quite well known and often cited? Why should
English speakers even consider using this somewhat grotesque
image of washing a baby in a small movable tub and then
throwing this human treasure out with the dirty bath water,
when their language has such well established equivalent
proverbial expressions as "To throw the helve after the
hatchet", "To throw away the wheat with the chaff" and the
bland "To throw away the good with the bad"? The major
reasons surely must have been that people came in contact
with the expression through a German speaker or through the
written German word. The latter seems to have been the case
regarding the first somewhat awkward loan translation of the
proverbial phrase in English by Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881).
The famous British social critic and historian was also an
extreme Germanophile, who studied German literature and who
published widely on such literary giants as Schiller and
Goethe. It might well be that he found the expression in
Goethe's autobiographical account Dichtung und
Wahrheit (1811/22; Poetry and Truth) which he
quite assuredly read in its German original and which does
in fact contain the phrase as will be shown later. In any
case, Carlyle used the phrase in an essay with the
disturbing title "The Nigger Question" that appeared in
December 1849 in Frazer's Magazine and as a separate
pamphlet in 1853 in London. In it he argues that white
people who hold black servants should make a commitment to
them for life since any shorter arrangement would appear to
be abuse, i.e. treat the slaves kindly but don't give them
Servants hired for life, or by a contract for a
long period, and not easily dissoluble; so and not
otherwise would all reasonable mortals, Black and White,
wish to hire and to be hired! I invite you to reflect on
that; for you will find it true. And if true, it is
important for us, in reference to this Negro Question and
some others. The Germans say, "you must empty-out the
bathing-tub, but not the baby along with it." Fling-out
your dirty water with all zeal, and set it careering down
the kennels; but try if you can keep the little
How to abolish the abuses of slavery, and save the
precious thing in it alas, I do not pretend that this is
easy, that it can be done in a day, or a single
generation, or a single century: but I do surmise or
perceive that it will, by straight methods or by
circuitous, need to be done. [...] And truly, my
friends, with regard to this world-famous Nigger
Question, - which perhaps is louder than it is big, after
all, - I would advise you to attack it on that side. Try
against the dirty water, with an eye to save the
baby! That will be a quite new point of attack; where, it
seems to me, some real benefit and victory for the poor
Negro, might before long be accomplished;
This is not only a telling account about slavery by a
leading British intellectual of the nineteenth century whose
reputation decreased in this century due to his love for
authority and strong leaders which appear to foreshadow
German Fascism. But this early English reference of the
proverb under discussion is also cited with the introductory
formula "The Germans say", making it absolutely clear that
Carlyle was well aware of its German origin. He translates
the proverb "Man soll das Kind nicht mit dem Bade
ausschütten" quite clumsily as "You must empty-out the
bathing-tub, but not the baby along with it" and alludes to
it a bit more cleverly later on with the grotesque statement
"Try against the dirty water, with an eye to save the baby!"
Translated into plain and non-metaphorical English this
would mean improve and civilize the institution of slavery
and the lot of the slaves themselves, but for heaven's sake
don't lose the luxury of having slaves! While this is
definitely a misguided argument, the fact remains that this
passage is a fascinating indication linguistically of how an
otherwise quite adept translator of German to English
struggles to render a German proverb whose metaphor has
struck his fancy into colloquial English, failing miserably
as can be seen.
It is very doubtful that this early reference had any
particular effect on spreading the expression in England. It
appears to be nothing but an isolated first occurrence in
awkward English which, however, does identify the phrase
correctly as a translation of an originally German proverb.
Lexicographers, whose business it is to find equivalents or
word-for-word translations for foreign language
dictionaries, continued to have the same problem with this
German expression throughout the nineteenth century all the
way to the mid 1950s. What follows is a short historical
review of how German-English dictionaries have dealt with
rendering the proverbial expression "das Kind mit dem Bade
ausschütten" into English:
1846: to reject the good with the bad.7
1849: to throw away the good together with the
1857: to reject the good with the bad.9
1896: to throw away (or to reject) the good and the bad
together, to use no discrimination.10
1900: to throw away (or reject) the good with the bad, to
act without discrimination.11
1936: throw the child out with the bath-water, hence, act
without discretion, reject the good with the
1941: to throw the helve after the hatchet.13
1958: reject the good together with the bad.14
1965: to cast away the good with the bad, to throw out
the child with the bath-water.15
1972: to throw out the child with the
1974: to throw out the baby with the bathwater.17
1978: throw out the baby with the bathwater.18
1981: to throw out the baby with the bathwater.19
1982: to throw out the baby with the bathwater.20
As can be seen, it took until 1936 before the English
version "throw the child out with the bath-water" appears in
a German-English dictionary, using the direct translation of
"Kind" to "child". However, this text appears to be but a
precise translation without any claim on currency in the
English language, since the lexicographer Karl Breul goes on
to say and explain "hence, act without discretion, reject
the good with the bad." In fact, it was not until the year
1965 that "to throw out the child with the bath-water" is at
least given equal footing with the much older but less
figurative "to cast away the good with the bad." Starting
with 1974 the variant "to throw out the baby with the
bathwater" finally appears and with this replacement of the
noun "child" with "baby" it has become the standard
lexicographical form today.
In the last clause the acute manipulator of traditional
language Günter Grass cleverly connects the shortened
proverbial expression "Das Kind mit dem Bade
ausschütten" with the phrase "Sie sitzen beide in einem
Bade" (they are both sitting in one bath, i.e. they both
have the same concerns or problems). It might even be that a
third expression, namely "Wir sitzen alle in einem Boot" (we
are all in the same boat), is being alluded to as well in
this pun. In any case, the experienced translator of much
modern German fiction, Ralph Manheim, quite successfully
translated this passage in his English rendition of The
Tin Drum (1961):
Mama could be very gay, she could also be very
anxious. Mama could forget quickly, yet she had a good
memory. Mama would throw me out with the bath water, and
yet she would share my bath.140
While he does not do very well with the interconnection
of the two if not three proverbial phrases which make up
Grass's punning proverbial language, he certainly recognizes
the first part to be the phrase under discussion here,
rendering it very appropriately as "Mama would throw me out
with the bath water." Predictably, the Swedish and Dutch
translations also maintain the original German expression.
The Swedish translator Nils Holmberg has for the final
sentence of this passage "Mamma lät mig komma till sig
i badkaret men kastade inte ut barnet med
badvattnet,"141 while the
Dutch translator Koos Schuur renders it as "Mijn moeder
gooide mij soms met het badwater weg en kwam toch bij mij in
het bad zitten."142 Yet
the French translator Jean Amsler encountered obvious
difficulty with this passage:
Maman savait être fort gaie. Maman savait
être fort anxieuse. Maman savait oublier vite.
Maman avait pourtant bonne mémoire. Maman me
flanquait a la porte et pourtant m'admettait dans son
Amsler kept the fact that Oscar's mother let him take a
bath with her (i.e. she admitted him into her bath), but he
replaces the German proverbial expression with the
inadequate phraseological unit "flanquer quelqu'un a la
porte" (i.e. to boot, throw, chuck someone out), losing the
proverbial pun altogether. He also decided quite correctly
that the traditional French equivalent "jeter le manche
après la cognée" (to throw the helve after the
hatchet) was even less fitting to translate this complex
sentence. But one thing is for certain, he did not have at his disposal the new French proverb "Il ne faut pas
jeter le bébé avec l'eau du bain" when he
translated Grass's novel in 1961. The proverb and its
proverbial form "jeter le bébé avec l'eau du
bain" must therefore be relatively new in the French
language, and that being the case, it might in fact be that
the phrase entered into the French language not from the
German but the English only sometime during the past two
It can be assumed that the German phrase, no matter how
it got into the French language, will catch on among
speakers of that language just as it has done in the English
tongue earlier this century. Many of the proverbs and
proverbial expressions that are shared in common by many
European languages date back to classical antiquity, the
Bible or the Middle Ages. They were usually translated word
by word and gained general currency especially through
widely disseminated Bible translations and also through the
pioneering humanistic work of Erasmus of Rotterdam
(1469-1536) whose Latin Adagia (1500ff.) also were
translated into the vulgate languages. It is, however, of
interest to note that certain indigenous proverbs or
proverbial expressions of a singular European national
culture can still today undergo the fascinating steps to
gain at least some international distribution and currency.
For a long time the German proverbial expression "Das Kind
mit dem Bade ausschütten" from the 15th century and its
slightly later wording as the proverb "Man muß das
Kind nicht mit dem Bade ausschütten" were pretty much
restricted to the German speaking countries. By the 17th
century they entered the closely related Dutch language and
culture and eventually spread to other Germanic languages in
the North. But the successful jump across the English
Channel and the Atlantic Ocean does not appear to have
happened until the nineteenth century. In fact, I hope to
have proven that the German phrase did not really get onto
solid footing in the Anglo-American world until the early
twentieth century. By now its German origin is only seldom
remembered and most users think of it as an English or
American expression. But appearances are deceiving, and it
would surely be better to classify this old German
proverbial expression and proverb as belonging at least to
an impressive degree to the international stock of
proverbial metaphors and wisdom. This ever increasing
internationalization is possible due to the fact that the
proverb and proverbial expression "(Don't) throw the baby
out with the bath water" express in an easily understandable
metaphor the only too human inclination towards extreme
reactions. All of us, whether we like it or not, are from
time to time guilty of the universally practiced act of
throwing the baby out with the bath water.
Murners Narrenbeschwörung, ed. by M. Spanier.
Halle: VEB Max Niemeyer, 1967, pp. 243-246.
from D. Martin Luthers Werke, ed. by Paul Pietsch.
Weimar: Hermann Böhlau, 1898, vol. 20, p. 160. See also
James Cornette, Proverbs and Proverbial Expressions in
the German Works of Martin Luther. Diss. University of
North Carolina, 1942, p. 157.
Taylor, "The Proverbial Formula 'Man soll ...'," Zeitschrift für Volkskunde, New Series, 2
(1930), 152-156. Also in Selected Writings on Proverbs by
Archer Taylor, ed. by Wolfgang Mieder. Helsinki:
Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, 1975, p. 104.
Sebastian Franck, Sprichwörter / Schöne / Weise
/ Herrliche Clugreden / und Hoffsprüch. Frankfurt
am Main: Christian Egenolff, 1541; rpt. ed. by Wolfgang
Mieder. Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1987, p. 16[b] and
5 For a
detailed historical study of occurrences in German written
sources of this popular proverb and proverbial expression
from Thomas Murner to the present day see Wolfgang Mieder,
"'Das Kind mit dem Bade ausschütten': Ursprung,
Überlieferung und Verwendung einer deutschen
Redensart," Muttersprache (submitted).
from Thomas Carlyle, Critical and Miscellaneous
Essays. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1904, vol. 4,
pp. 368-369. The entire essay on pp. 348-383.
Leonhard Hilpert, Englisch-Deutsches und
Deutsch-Englisches Wörterbuch. Karlsruhe: Braun,
1846, vol. 2, p. 118.
Adler, Dictionary of the German and English
Languages. New York: Appleton, 1849, part 1, p.
Leonhard Hilpert, A Dictionary of the English and German,
and the German and English Language. Carlsruhe: Braun,
1857, part 1, p. 118.
Flügel, A Dictionary of the English and German
Languages. New York: Lemcke & Buechner, 1896, part
2, p. 130.
Muret and Daniel Sanders, Encyklopädisches
englisch-deutsches und deutsch-englisches
Wörterbuch. Berlin: Langenscheidt, 1900, part 2, p.
Breul, Cassell's German and English Dictionary. New
York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1936, p. 68.
Wessely, Deutsch-Englisches und Englisch-Deutsches
Taschenwörterbuch. Philadelphia: David McKay, 1941,
T. Betteridge, The New Cassell's German Dictionary. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1958, p. 261.
Wildhagen, The New Wildhagen German Dictionary. Chicago: Follett, 1965, p. 670.
Wildhagen, English-German / German-English
Dictionary. London: George Allen, 1972, vol. 2, p.
Springer, Langenscheidts Enzyklopädisches
Wörterbuch der englischen und deutschen Sprache. Berlin: Langenscheidt, 1974, part 2, vol. 1, p.
Betteridge, Cassell's German-English / English-German
Dictionary. New York: Macmillan, 1978, p.
Terrell et al., Collins German-English / English-German
Dictionary. London: Collins, 1981, p. 389.
Sawers, Harrap's Concise German and English
Dictionary. London: Harrap, 1982, p. 290.
140 Günter Grass, The Tin Drum, translated by Ralph
Manheim. London: Secker and Warburg, 1961, p.
141 Günter Grass, Blecktrumman, translated by Nils
Holmberg. Stockholm: Albert Bonniers Förlag, 1961, p.
142 Günter Grass, De blikken trommel, translated by
Koos Schuur. Amsterdam: Meulenhoff, 1964, p. 173.
143 Günter Grass, Le Tambour, translated by Jean
Amsler. Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 1961, p. 171.
Department of German and Russian
University of Vermont
Burlington, Vermont 05405