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The proverb "The black ox has not trod on his (or: her) foot" was familiarly used by English writers of the Renaissance and was, we may be sure, readily understood in its general tenor, but it has almost completely disappeared from use,[1] and the Renaissance examples do not indicate its origin. The proverb has the following closely related meanings,[2] which I arrange in the order of their appearance:

1. He has not known trouble in the married state.

1546. It was yet but honeymoone: The black oxe had not trode on his or her foote. J. Heywood, A Dialogue conteinyng... proverbs, 1, ch. vi.

1557. I think he passeth not xxiii, the blacke oxe neur trode on hys fote. Erasmus, A mery dialogue, Il. 749-51, fol. 16v-17r (see facsimile ed. in H. de Vocht, The Earliest English translations of Erasmus' Colloquia, Oxford U. Press, 1928). The original is: nondum novit, quid sit esse patremfamilias.

1573. See the quotation from Tusser, below § 4.

1575. They never prove stayed until the blacke oxe hath trodden on their toes. G. Gascoigne, Glasse of Government in The Complete Works of George Gascoigne, ed. J. W. Cunliffe (Cambridge, 1910), II, i, p. 81, v. 6.

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Proverbs, Sayings and Popular Wisdom - Audio Proverbs in English and Romance Languages, Proverb Studies, Proverb Collections, International Proverb Bibliographies


De Proverbio – Latin for ‘About the Proverb’ – is a website devoted to proverbs in several languages. It was founded in January 1995 at the University of Tasmania, Australia. De Proverbio was the world’s first refereed electronic journal of international proverb studies. It’s inspiration was Proverbium: Yearbook of International Proverb Scholarship edited by Prof. Wolfgang Mieder at the University of Vermont. The Yearbook continued the tradition of Proverbium: Bulletin d’Information sur les Recherches Parémiologiques, published occasionally from 1965 to 1975 by the Society for Finnish Literature, Helsinki.

Recently, the website has added audio proverbs in six languages, read by native speakers.  Also available for the lovers of languages and their proverbial richess is a page of multilingual proverb crosswords.

Proverbs and Their Definition

From time immemorial proverbs have fascinated people of all ages and from all walks of life. As it happened throughout centuries, common people today still avail themselves of the proverb’s rich oral tradition to convey their culture and values, while scholars collect and study them from a wide range of angles: linguistic, social, psychological, political, historical and so on.

Proverbs by James Chapman - cat
A cat in mittens won’t catch mice

The problem of proverb definition is still open. However, it is broadly accepted that proverbs were born from man’s experience. And that they generally express, in a very succinct way, common-sense truths. They give sound advice and reflect the human condition. But, as we know, human nature is both good and bad and the latter is often mirrored by discriminatory proverbs, be they against women, different nationalities or particular social groups. For a thorough discussion of proverb definition, see Popular Views of the Proverb by Prof. Wolfgang Mieder. Another article which sheds some light on the proverb definition is The Wisdom of Many and the Wit of One by Archer Taylor.

Proverbs and Their Origin

As to the origin of proverbs we tend to assume that they were born in times when human society began to self-impose rules and embrace principles necessary for communal living. Research can trace them back only to the time when language was recorded by means of some type of writing. The Sumerian civilisation of more than five thousand years ago is the oldest known civilisation to have made use of proverbs, some of which have been passed on through its cuneiform inscriptions.

One such proverb, in its Latin version, is Canis festinans caecos parit catulos. It spread to other languages. The English translation is The hasty bitch brings forth blind whelps. In French, it became La chienne dans sa hâte a mis bas des chiots aveugles. In the Italian La gatta frettolosa fece i gattini ciechi, the bitch has been replaced by the cat. The Portuguese version is Cadelas apressadas parem cães tortos, and the Romanian, Căţeaua de pripă îşi naşte căţeii fără ochi.

Proverbs and Their Use

Apart from use on a wide scale in day-to-day speech, there is ample evidence that proverbs were essential tools in teaching and learning. The pedagogical use of proverbs was encountered first in Sumerian society and subsequently this use became widespread throughout Medieval Europe.

Proverbs by James Chapman - book
A book is like a garden carried in the pocket

Proverbs and proverbial expressions are found in religious manuscripts of the first half of the eighth century. The aim of introducing proverbs into religious texts was to help novices to learn Latin, and this practice became widespread by the tenth century.

The use of proverbs in teaching and learning was not circumscribed to England. Relatively new research attests to the use of proverbs in teaching in the eleventh century in Liège, France. In Italy the famous medical School of Salerno of the eleventh century formulated medical precepts which later became proverbs adopted by different cultures. Post prandium stabis, post coenam ambulabis was translated After dinner sit awhile, after supper walk a mile in English. In French became Après dîner repose un peu, après souper promène une mille, while in Italian Dopo pranzo riposar un poco, dopo cena passeggiar un miglio. The Spanish version is Después de yantar reposad un poco, después de cenar pasead una milla and the Portuguese Depois de jantar, dormir; depois de cear, passos mil.

Proverbs and Their Abuse

But from use comes abuse, as a Spanish proverb says.  There is no doubt that the capacity of the proverb to convey universal truths concisely led to their abuse and manipulation.

Hitler and his Nazi regime employed proverbs as emotional slogans for propaganda purposes and encouraged the publication of anti-semitic proverb collections. For a thorough analysis of this phenomenon, please read the fascinating article “ … as if I were the master of situation.” Proverbial Manipulation in Adolf Hitler by Prof. Wolfgang Mieder.

At the opposite end of the political spectrum, communist regimes of the past have not only manipulated proverbs, but also purged popular collections of features which did not reflect their political ends. The former Soviet regime is at the forefront of such actions. One type of manipulation described by Jean Breuillard in Proverbes et pouvoir politique: Le cas de l’U.R.S.S.  (published in “Richesse du proverbe”, Eds. François Suard and Claude Buridant. Lille: Université de Lille, 1984. II, 155-166). It consisted in modifying ancient proverbs like La vérité parcourt le monde (Truth spreads all over the world) into La vérité de Lénine parcourt le monde (Lenin’s truth spreads all over the world). As a result the new creation is unequivocably charged with a specific ideological message.

Manipulation did not stop at individual proverbs, it extended to entire collections. Vladimir Dal’s mid-nineteen century collection of Russian proverbs is such an example. Its first Soviet edition (1957) reduces the proverbs containing the word God from 283 to 7 only. Instead, those which express compassion for human weaknesses, such as alcoholism, disappear altogether. In more recent years, in Ceauşescu’s Romania, Proverbele românilor (published in 1877 by I. C. Hinţescu) suffered the same treatment. More than 150 proverbs were eliminated or changed in order to respond rigidly to the communist ideology.

Proverbs Across Time and Space

The Oxford Dictionary of English Proverbs states that foreign proverbs’ contribution to the English proverbial stock has enriched our language. Many proverbs of foreign origin were quickly absorbed into English life and have a rightful place in an English dictionary. Indeed, a close scrutiny of that dictionary reveals that more than two hundred and fifty proverbs are listed as first existing in Italian.

This is also true for other modern languages, particularly French and Spanish. The translation is not always literal. At times it is adapted to the new language and the resulting proverb is often enriched in its expression. For instance the Latin Homo sine pecunia est imago mortis (A man without money is the image of death) is rather closely translated in Italian as Uomo senza quattrini è un morto che cammina (A man without money is a dead man walking).

However, in other languages the metaphor changes, but not the meaning. In English the proverb becomes A man without money is a bow without an arrow, while in French Un homme sans argent / Est un loup sans dents (A man without money is a wolf without teeth) and an element of rhyme is introduced. The Romanian adaptation is a real poetic gem Omul fără bani e ca pasărea fără aripi; Când dă să zboare / Cade jos şi moare (A man without money is like a bird without wings; When he tries to fly / He falls down and dies). The concept is essentially the same: the man without money lacks something important…

Proverbs Today

Proverbs by James Chapman - egg and hen
The egg thinks it’s smarter than the hen

While proverbs are still used today in a traditional way, that is in speech, literature and teaching, they have found a new ever expanding use in the advertising industry and in the mass media. One example is Here today, gone tomorrow, which became Hair today, gone tomorrow in the hair-removal industry. In the mass media it has a variety of paraphrases such as Hear today, gone tomorrow or Heir today, gone tomorrow. Before the Barcelona Olympic Games the old proverb All roads lead to Rome became All roads lead to… Barcelona in many English language newspapers and magazines. A new phenomenon encountered in many languages nowadays and is undoubtedly a sign of the proverb’s resilience and vitality.

Important writers of the past, among them Goethe and Voltaire, have questioned the traditional wisdom of proverbs. That led to some proverb transformations. Prof. Wolfgang Mieder coined the term anti-proverb for all forms of creative proverb changes. They can be deliberate innovations, alterations, variations, parodies. Anti-proverbs are widely spread today, some living a short time, some even making their way into recent proverb collections. A new broom sweeps clean, but the old one knows the corners and Absence makes the heart grow fonder – for somebody else are considered anti-proverbs.

Proverbs and Their Collection

Apart from studies on individual and multilingual proverbs and proverbial expressions, you will find a few e-books on our website. I will mention a Brazilian collection and a dictionary of equivalent English and Romanian proverbs. Prof. Wolfgang Mieder’s yearly bibliographies are an invaluable tool for students and researchers. Given their widespread use over the millennia, it is no wonder that scholars of the past started assembling proverbs in collections. Aristotle is believed to be among the first paremiographers (collectors of proverbs), but, unfortunately, his collection was lost. In more recent times a great impetus to the collection of proverbs was given by Erasmus. His fame spread from Venice throughout Europe after the publication in 1508 of his Adagiorum Chiliades. This collection contained 3,260 proverbs drawn from classical authors.

The success of the book led to several augmented editions culminating with that of 1536, which contains 4,151 proverbs. Erasmus’ work was translated into several European languages. While it became the model for future proverb collections in those languages, they were widely copied and translated.

One good example of such a practice is the 1591 Italian collection Giardino di Ricreatione, nel quale crescono fronde, fiori e frutti, vaghe, leggiadri e soavi, sotto nome di sei miglia proverbii, e piacevoli riboboli Italiani, colti e scelti da Giovanni Florio. And two decades later appeared in French as Le Jardin de Récréation, au quel croissent rameaux, fleurs et fruits très-beaux, gentils et souefs, soubz le nom de Six mille proverbes et plaisantes rencontres françoises, recueillis et triéez par GOMÈS DE TRIER, non seulement utiles mais délectables pour tous espritz désireux de la très-noble et copieuse langue françoise, nouvellement mis en lumière, à Amsterdam, par PAUL DE RAVESTEYN.

Proverbs and Fun

Proverbs by James Chapman - duck
If the world flooded, it wouldn’t matter to the duck

On the less academic side, you can test your knowledge of languages by solving our bilingual or multilingual crosswords. Or, you can listen to our featured proverbs in 6 languages – English, French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian and Spanish. Also, enjoy sharing them with your friends. Some were posted on Twitter as comments to political events of the day.

Painters in Renaissance time, from Hieronymus Bosch to Pieter Bruegel, with his famous Netherlandish Proverbs, were attracted by the subject.

Modern artists like James Chapman illustrated recently proverbs from other world languages with hilarious cartoons. See some of his images on this page.

The full text of this article is published in De Proverbio - Issue 3:1996 & Issue 4:1996, an electronic book, available from amazon.com and other leading Internet booksellers.

2. He is inexperienced, has not known sorrow or care.

1580. The blacke Oxe neuer trode on your foote yet, you neuer came where it grewe. Anthony Munday, Zelanto, the fountain of fame, p. 126b.

1581. Till the blacke oxe tread upon his toes, and neede make him trie what mettle he is made of. Mulcaster, Positions, XXXVI (1887), 139.

1589. I hope his Canterburinesse will looke to this geare, and suffer them to haue liberty neither to write, nor to dispute, the blacke Oxe hath troden on his foote, he hath had some trial by woful experience, what smal credite... there is to be had, either in writing or disputing with these fellows. Marprel. Tr., Epitome, B ii b.

1590. They travelled by the space of two or three days without seeing any creatures, being often in danger of wild beasts, and pained with many passionate sorrows. Now the black oxe began to tread on their feet. T. Lodge, Rosalynde (ed. W. W. Greg, London, 1931), pp. 34-35.

1590. Sonne, as yet thou hast not eaten bread with one tooth, nor hath the blacke Oxe trodden upon thy foote. Robert Greene, Mourning Garment (ed. 1616), p. 6.

1605. At last the black ox trod o' my foot, / And I saw then what long'd unto't. J. Marston, Eastward Ho, V, v, 80 (ed. Bullen, III, 119).

1610. ... when men feele the Reines of liberty on their necke and may take a course without controlement, ... then when the black Oxe hath trod vpon their feete, ... in the end they come home by weeping crosse. Samuel Rowlands, Martin Marke-all his Apologie, Works, II (Glasgow: Hunterian Club, 1880), separately paged, p. 29, Il. 5ff.

1611. Tis true as your father said, the black ox hath not trode upon that foot of yours. Robert Tailer, The Hog Hath Lost His Pearl (Dodsley's Old Plays, 1744), II, i, p. 198.


The continental European parallels to "The black ox has not trod on his foot" offer much the same picture as do the English examples. In Germany, the proverb names either a black ox or a black cow, but as in the case of the pronouns "he" and "she," we cannot find anything significant in the variation.[7] An important and curious early German example of our proverb occurs in Nicolaus Herman's verses on the Prodigal Son which were published in 1562. A similar context is seen in Samuel Richardson's allusion: "The common phrase of wild-oats, and black oxen, and such-like qualifiers."[8] After the Prodigal Son has squandered his substance in riotous living, he suffers distress:

Do jn so tratt die schwartze Kuh,
Kam der alt Reul vnd bisz mit zu.[9]

This obscure passage has been satisfactorily explained as a reference to Reuel (penitence) as a dog.[10] A confusing variant:

In des so trat jn auch die schwartze Kuh,
Kam der alte keil auch darzu.[11]

is probably a misreading of "der alt Reul." There is an occasional example of the proverb of the black ox in later literary use, e.g., "Wissens auch nicht, weil ihre augen gut und gesund sein, und keine augenbrechen gehabt noch versucht haben, oder wie man zu sagen pfleget, welche die schwarze kue noch nicht getreten hat,''[12] "auf die letzt trat mich zwar die schwarze kuh, aber zu spät,''[13] "er hat sich viel Unglücks genietet, die schwarze Kuh hat ihn oft getreten," and "jedes rauschend Blatt ist ihm ein geharnischter Mann, die schwarze Kuhe hat ihn zu oft getreten,''[14]--which have the meanings familiar in English.

The full text of this article is published in De Proverbio - Issue 3:1996 & Issue 4:1996, an electronic book, available from amazon.com and other leading Internet booksellers.


*Reprinted from Wolfgang Mieder (ed.) Selected Writings on Proverbs by Archer Taylor, Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, Helsinki 1975, pp. 152-164

  1. My friend Bartlett Whiting gives me two examples from modern English fiction, viz., "She was ready to settle down and let the Black Oxen do their will with her" (Theda Kenyon, Witchtes Still Live [New York, 1929], p. 343) and "The black ox hath trodden on her toe" (Wyndham Lewis, The Apes of God [New York, 1932], p. 593). The plural "oxen" appears again in the title of Gertrude Atherton's Black Oxen (1923). These uses of the proverb appear to have been suggested by acquaintance with a literary rather than an oral tradition and are intended to suggest "atmosphere." Sir Walter Scott's use of the proverb (The Antiquary, Ch. XL; Fortunes of Nigel, Ch. II middle) may, on the contrary, have an origin in oral tradition, for the proverb is said to be current in Scotland; see J. Jamieson, Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language (1825), new ed., Paisley, 1879, s.v. "black ox"; G. V. Irving, Notes and Queries, 3d Series, XII, 488; T. F. Dyer, Domestic Folk-Lore (London, 1881) as cited in Notes and Queries, CLXVII, 376.
  1. For many of these examples I am indebted to Professor M. P. Tilley, who has generously given them to me. Some instances which are found in proverb collections give no indication of their meaning and serve therefore only to prove that the proverb was known at the time of printing. See, e.g., a manuscript note written about A.D. 1598 in Fergusson, Scottish Proverbs (ed. Beveridge), p. 102; William Camden, Remaines concerning Britain (3d ed., London, 1623), p. 279 (not found in ed. 1614). There are no proverbs in ed. 1 (1605); J. Howell, Paroemiographia (1659), "British Proverbs," p. 23; N. R., Cent., Proverbs (1659), p. 21; Thomas Fuller, Gnomologia (1732), p. 189, No. 4427.

  2. The editor of Tusser's Husbandrie quotes the following from Bernard's Terence: "Prosperitie hangs on his sleeue; the black oxe cannot tread on his foot."

  3. Epigrams (ed. J. S. Farmer, 1908), p. 139, No. 79, "The blacke oxe."

  4. E. Peacock, A Glossary of Words Used in the Wapentakes of Manley and Corringham, Lincolnshire (English Dialect Soc., LVIII; London, 1889), p. 51.

  5. Countess Cathleen, as quoted in Notes and Queries, CXLIX (1935), 67.

  6. Wander, Deutsches Sprichwörter-Lexikon, II, col. 1687, "Kuh," 521 and III, col. 1108, "Ochs," *350, *360, *361. The form varies slightly: "Die schwarze Kuh hat ihn gedrückt" or "Die schwarze Kuh hat ihm auf den Fuss getreten."

  7. Quoted from the New English Dictionary, s.v. "ox."

  8. P. Wackernagel, Das deutsche Kirchenlied, III (Leipzig, 1870), 1210, No. 1413, Stanza 8. For comment see Deutsches Wörterbuch, s.v. "Kuh," 6.

  9. Deutsches Wörterbuch, VIII, col. 835--36. See also F. Koldewey (ed.), B. Wapdis, Streitgedichte (Halle, 1883), p. XVI.

  10. J. Bergmann, Ambraser Liederbuch, "Bibliothek des litterarischen Vereins," XII (Stuttgart, 1845), 147 (No. 128, Stanza 8). The variant reading also appears in the Liederbüchlein (Frankfurt a.M.: N. Basse, 1580), the Liederbüchlein of 1584, and the Gross Liederbuch (Frankfurt a.M., 1599). For description of these texts see C. A. Williams, JEGP, VIII (1909), 489--500. Professor Williams has given me counsel about these texts.

  11. G. Bartisch, img Das ist, Augendienst (Dresden, 1583), 3 as quoted in Deutsches Wörterbuch, s.v. "Kuh," 6.

  12. Christian Weise, Die drei ergsten Erznarren, Ch. 6 as quoted in Deutsches Wörterbuch, s.v. "Kuh," 6.

  13. V. Herzberger, Herz-Postille, I, 780 and Trauerbinden as quoted by G. Schoppe, Mitteilungen der schlesischen Gesellschaft für Volkskunde, XXIX (1928), 300.

  14. A. Schleicher, Litauische Märchen, Sprichwörter, Rätsel und Lieder (Weimar, 1857), p. 174 (the original is not given).

  15. A parallel (German) from Estonia in A. W. Hupel, Idiotikon der deutschen Sprache in Lief- und Ehstland (Riga, 1795), p. 131. Grimm's reference (Deut. Myth., p. 631) to Etner is obscure.

  16. Ipolyi, Zeitschrift für deutsche Mythologie, I (1853), 271. The original is not given. The aberrant form of this Hungarian version suggests that the translation may not be accurate.

  17. J. G. von Hahn, Albanesische Studien (Jena, 1854), II, 154, No. 73.

  18. N. G. Polites, Paroimiai, III (Athens, 1903), 200--201, "Beta," No. 45. The extensive commentary represents the most thorough investigation of the proverb. I am indebted for the reference and other substantial assistance to my friend Richard Jente.

  19. R. Riegler, Die neuren Sprachen, XXXIII (1925), 369--70.

  20. Gemeene Duytsche Spreckwoorden: Adagia oft Proverbia ghenoemt (Campen, 1550), p. 11 = Harrebomée, II, 154 a.
  21. Osmanische Sprichwörter (Bernstein, 3522), pp. 32--33, No. 95.

  22. H. Massmann, Kaiserchronik (Quedlinburg, 1854), III, 951--54; F. Liebrecht, Des Gervasius von Tilbury Otia Imperialia (Hanover, 1856), p. 126; E. L. Rochholz, Schweizersagen (Aarau, 1856), II, 21--22; Brothers Grimm, Kinder- und Hausmärchen, III (Göttingen, 1856), 298; R. Köhler, "Eine Sage von Theodorichs Ende in dem 'Libro de los Enxemplos," Germania, XVIII (1873), 147--52 = Kleinere Schriftcn, II (Berlin, 1900), 266--72; Heiberg, "Theodorich som den vilde Jaeger," Dania, IX (1903), 239-40; J. Bolte and G. Polivka, Anmerkungen, IV (Leipzig, 1930), 140--41. Compare Herman Schneider's explanation of the story in Germanische Heldensage, I (Berlin, 1928), 278--82.

  23. Neuer Büchersaal der schönen Wissenschaften, VI (1748), 449--58. Wander, Deutsches Sprichwörter-Lexikon, II, col. 687, "Kuh," *521 cites J. G. Bock, Idioticon prussicum (Königsberg, 1759), pp. 38--39, but this contains nothing pertinent. A. M. Hyamson, A Dictionary of English Phrases (London, 1922), p. 49, offers the same explanation and adds that the phrase means "He is henpecked."
  24. Deutsche Mythologic, 1st ed., p. 631, n. 1 (4th ed., p. 554, n. 1).

  25. Wander, Deutsches Sprichwörter-Lexikon, II, col. 1687, "Kuh," *521. This positive assertion is typical of ideas prevalent about the middle of the nineteenth century.

  26. Deutsche Mythologie, III, 467, No. 887.

  27. Des Gervasius von Tilbury Otia Imperialia (Hanover, 1856), p. 92. The Oláfspáttr Geirstadaâlfs may be found in Fornmannasögur, X, 209--15. The pertinent passage is conveniently reprinted in G. D. Kelchner, Dreams in Old Norse Literature and Their Affinities in Folklore (Cambridge, 1935), p. 127.

  28. Eugen Mogk in Paul's Grundriss dur germanischen Philologie,2 II, i (Strassburg, 1901--9), 824.

  29. R. Riegler, "Zur Redensart: Die schwarze Kuh hat ihn gedrückt (getreten)," Die neueren Sprachen, XXXIII (1925), 368--70. See also G. Schoppe, "Sprichwörtliche Redensarten," Mitteilungen der schlesischen Gesellschaft für Volkskunde, XXIX (1928), 300, who independently offers the same explanation.

  30. Deutsches Sprichwörter-Lexikon, III, col. 1108, "Ochs," *350.

  31. London, 1832. See p. 106. According to Archdeacon Nares, the proverb signifies the burdens of old age, but he offers no comment. See A Glossary or Collection of Words (New ed., London, 1901), II, 625.

  32. Comte A. de Laborde, "La Mort chevauchant un boeuf," Comptes rendus des seances de l'Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres, 1923, pp. 100--13; Alois Bernt and Konrad Burdach (eds.), Der Ackermann aus Böhmen (Berlin, 1917), pp. 237--52, "Das römische Bild des Todes und die bildhaften Elemente der Todesvorstellung im 'Ackermann,'" especially pp. 248--49; Istvan Kozáky, Anfänge der Darstellungen des Vergänglichkeitsproblems ("Bibliotheca humanitatis historica, I; Budapest, 1936), passim. Kozáky's important study is the first of three volumes on the origin, development, and modern forms of the Dance of Death. The high merits of the first volume have not been adequately noticed in any review that has come to my attention.

  33. A. Bernt and K. Burdach, Ackermann, pp. 248--49; Kozáky, p. 184.

  34. Kozáky, p. 229.

  35. De Laborde, p. 106. These pictures supply a better explanation of the French and Breton traditions of death symbolized by vehicles drawn by black oxen than does Riegler's theory. A painting suggested by Petrarch's Trionfi and belonging to an artist of the school of Mantegna hangs in the Metropolitan Museum (New York). I am indebted to Mr. Harry B. Wehle of the Museum for confirming my recollection of the painting. For iconographic parallels see E. Panofsky, Studies in Iconology (New York, 1939), p. 11, n. 58.

  36. See Kozáky, p. 185. On Blindman's Buff see Groschuff, "Gedanken über das in Deutschland übliche Blindekuhspiel," Neuer Büchersaal der schönen Wissenschaften, VI (1748), 431--58; F. M. Böhme, Deutsches Kinderlied und Kinderspiel (Leipzig, 1897), p. 628; J. Lewalter and G. Schläger, Deutsches Kinderlied und Kinderspiel (Kassel, 1911), p. 406, No. 98. Kozáky would have found support in S. Singer's remarks in Zeitschrift des Vereins für Volkskunde, XIII (1903), 50.

  37. See Kozáky, pp. 185, 266, 337.


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