Home About Us EJournal EBooks Bibliographies Bible Proverbs Quotations Games Proverbium Paremia line Twitter

All that glitters is not gold.

Click here to see/listen to the equivalent proverb in:
rss 2.0
Send the proverb of the day to a friend
Daily Quote :
Knowledge is and will be produced in order to be sold, it is and will be consumed in order to be valorized in a new production: in both cases, the goal is exchange. Knowledge ceases to be an end in itself, it loses its use-value.
--Get Details
( Lyotard, Jean Francois | Knowledge )




The investigation of proverbs in their semiotic aspect is one of the most gratifying tasks for a folklorist.
P.G. Bogatyrev (1937: 366)

1. "Simple Form" Proverb: Text, Context, Function

Although, after all, André Jolles' book Einfache Formen has been "more stimulating than clarifying" - as Mohr (1956: 321) put it in a survey of echoes to it - practically any modern investigation of so-called "simple forms"[2] refers to this most influential study.[3] When Jolles, in 1929, published his book, he attempted to investigate the various forms which are part of what had been summarized under the name of Naturpoesie by Jacob Grimm in the early 19th century. According to Grimm, Naturpoesie was characterized by the process of Sichvonselbstmachen as opposed to Kunstpoesie, of which the process of individual Zubereitung by a particular poet is characteristic. For Jolles, then, Formbestimmung and Gestaltdeutung are the central morphological tasks of literary scholarship, and in this way he wanted to define the various genres of Naturpoesie in a more detailed manner than had been done by his precursor, Jacob Grimm. But Jolles' notion of these terms is, at least from a modern point of view, misleading: although he was very well aware of his innovative approach, Jolles remained caught in the Romantic concept of language. At the same period of time, when, in Russia, for example, the futurists' and formalists' concentration on The Word as Such had already passed, when formalism was already converting into structuralism (as, e.g., in the manifest by Jakobson/Tynyanov from 1928), language, for Jolles, was still an "anthopomorphic deity", "Goddess language", as Klemperer (1930: 405ff.) phrased it in his review of Jolles' book. It is exactly for this reason that Jolles himself, who tried to trace back the various simple forms to particular mental impulses or activities (Geistesbeschäftigungen), closed the way which might have led to a Formbestimmung in the strict sense of this word, in spite of the theoretical-methodological novelty of his question: "Leading back the concrete manifest simple forms to a Geistesbeschäftigung, the linguistic poetic code characteristic of these forms is transferred into the metaphysical sphere, and it is made inaccessible to an empirical-poetological investigation" (Kanyó 1981: 75).

Practically at the same time, a somewhat different line of thought was developed by the two Russian scholars, Roman Jakobson and Petr Bogatyrev. In a similar way to Jolles, they too, argue in favor of a predominantly synchronous analysis of folklore in order to determine both common and distinct traits of folklore and literature. As opposed to Jolles, however, they do this with an explicitly functional orientation, strictly rejecting genetic questions. Instead, the notion of the "preventive censorship of the community" is central to their approach: "In a word, in folklore only those forms remain which prove to be operative within the given community" (Jakobson/Tynyanov 1929: 143).

The approach advanced by Jakobson and Tynyanov opened the way for two important perspectives in analysing simple forms: first of all, we obtain the possibility of actually providing a Formbestimmung of a simple form's text on a synchronous level (which, of course, implies a notion of language as a basic means of interhuman communication), and secondly, it allows the investigation of its function. Unfortunately, however, Bogatyrev's call for the investigation of proverbs in their semiotic aspect, promoted as early as in 1937, remained practically unheard until the late 1960s.

Warning: Division by zero in /home/world68/public_html/DPjournal/DP,1,1,95/GRZYBEK.html on line 402
Proverbs, Sayings and Popular Wisdom - Audio Proverbs in English and Romance Languages, Proverb Studies, Proverb Collections, International Proverb Bibliographies


De Proverbio – Latin for ‘About the Proverb’ – is a website devoted to proverbs in several languages. It was founded in January 1995 at the University of Tasmania, Australia. De Proverbio was the world’s first refereed electronic journal of international proverb studies. It’s inspiration was Proverbium: Yearbook of International Proverb Scholarship edited by Prof. Wolfgang Mieder at the University of Vermont. The Yearbook continued the tradition of Proverbium: Bulletin d’Information sur les Recherches Parémiologiques, published occasionally from 1965 to 1975 by the Society for Finnish Literature, Helsinki.

Recently, the website has added audio proverbs in six languages, read by native speakers.  Also available for the lovers of languages and their proverbial richess is a page of multilingual proverb crosswords.

Proverbs and Their Definition

From time immemorial proverbs have fascinated people of all ages and from all walks of life. As it happened throughout centuries, common people today still avail themselves of the proverb’s rich oral tradition to convey their culture and values, while scholars collect and study them from a wide range of angles: linguistic, social, psychological, political, historical and so on.

Proverbs by James Chapman - cat
A cat in mittens won’t catch mice

The problem of proverb definition is still open. However, it is broadly accepted that proverbs were born from man’s experience. And that they generally express, in a very succinct way, common-sense truths. They give sound advice and reflect the human condition. But, as we know, human nature is both good and bad and the latter is often mirrored by discriminatory proverbs, be they against women, different nationalities or particular social groups. For a thorough discussion of proverb definition, see Popular Views of the Proverb by Prof. Wolfgang Mieder. Another article which sheds some light on the proverb definition is The Wisdom of Many and the Wit of One by Archer Taylor.

Proverbs and Their Origin

As to the origin of proverbs we tend to assume that they were born in times when human society began to self-impose rules and embrace principles necessary for communal living. Research can trace them back only to the time when language was recorded by means of some type of writing. The Sumerian civilisation of more than five thousand years ago is the oldest known civilisation to have made use of proverbs, some of which have been passed on through its cuneiform inscriptions.

One such proverb, in its Latin version, is Canis festinans caecos parit catulos. It spread to other languages. The English translation is The hasty bitch brings forth blind whelps. In French, it became La chienne dans sa hâte a mis bas des chiots aveugles. In the Italian La gatta frettolosa fece i gattini ciechi, the bitch has been replaced by the cat. The Portuguese version is Cadelas apressadas parem cães tortos, and the Romanian, Căţeaua de pripă îşi naşte căţeii fără ochi.

Proverbs and Their Use

Apart from use on a wide scale in day-to-day speech, there is ample evidence that proverbs were essential tools in teaching and learning. The pedagogical use of proverbs was encountered first in Sumerian society and subsequently this use became widespread throughout Medieval Europe.

Proverbs by James Chapman - book
A book is like a garden carried in the pocket

Proverbs and proverbial expressions are found in religious manuscripts of the first half of the eighth century. The aim of introducing proverbs into religious texts was to help novices to learn Latin, and this practice became widespread by the tenth century.

The use of proverbs in teaching and learning was not circumscribed to England. Relatively new research attests to the use of proverbs in teaching in the eleventh century in Liège, France. In Italy the famous medical School of Salerno of the eleventh century formulated medical precepts which later became proverbs adopted by different cultures. Post prandium stabis, post coenam ambulabis was translated After dinner sit awhile, after supper walk a mile in English. In French became Après dîner repose un peu, après souper promène une mille, while in Italian Dopo pranzo riposar un poco, dopo cena passeggiar un miglio. The Spanish version is Después de yantar reposad un poco, después de cenar pasead una milla and the Portuguese Depois de jantar, dormir; depois de cear, passos mil.

Proverbs and Their Abuse

But from use comes abuse, as a Spanish proverb says.  There is no doubt that the capacity of the proverb to convey universal truths concisely led to their abuse and manipulation.

Hitler and his Nazi regime employed proverbs as emotional slogans for propaganda purposes and encouraged the publication of anti-semitic proverb collections. For a thorough analysis of this phenomenon, please read the fascinating article “ … as if I were the master of situation.” Proverbial Manipulation in Adolf Hitler by Prof. Wolfgang Mieder.

At the opposite end of the political spectrum, communist regimes of the past have not only manipulated proverbs, but also purged popular collections of features which did not reflect their political ends. The former Soviet regime is at the forefront of such actions. One type of manipulation described by Jean Breuillard in Proverbes et pouvoir politique: Le cas de l’U.R.S.S.  (published in “Richesse du proverbe”, Eds. François Suard and Claude Buridant. Lille: Université de Lille, 1984. II, 155-166). It consisted in modifying ancient proverbs like La vérité parcourt le monde (Truth spreads all over the world) into La vérité de Lénine parcourt le monde (Lenin’s truth spreads all over the world). As a result the new creation is unequivocably charged with a specific ideological message.

Manipulation did not stop at individual proverbs, it extended to entire collections. Vladimir Dal’s mid-nineteen century collection of Russian proverbs is such an example. Its first Soviet edition (1957) reduces the proverbs containing the word God from 283 to 7 only. Instead, those which express compassion for human weaknesses, such as alcoholism, disappear altogether. In more recent years, in Ceauşescu’s Romania, Proverbele românilor (published in 1877 by I. C. Hinţescu) suffered the same treatment. More than 150 proverbs were eliminated or changed in order to respond rigidly to the communist ideology.

Proverbs Across Time and Space

The Oxford Dictionary of English Proverbs states that foreign proverbs’ contribution to the English proverbial stock has enriched our language. Many proverbs of foreign origin were quickly absorbed into English life and have a rightful place in an English dictionary. Indeed, a close scrutiny of that dictionary reveals that more than two hundred and fifty proverbs are listed as first existing in Italian.

This is also true for other modern languages, particularly French and Spanish. The translation is not always literal. At times it is adapted to the new language and the resulting proverb is often enriched in its expression. For instance the Latin Homo sine pecunia est imago mortis (A man without money is the image of death) is rather closely translated in Italian as Uomo senza quattrini è un morto che cammina (A man without money is a dead man walking).

However, in other languages the metaphor changes, but not the meaning. In English the proverb becomes A man without money is a bow without an arrow, while in French Un homme sans argent / Est un loup sans dents (A man without money is a wolf without teeth) and an element of rhyme is introduced. The Romanian adaptation is a real poetic gem Omul fără bani e ca pasărea fără aripi; Când dă să zboare / Cade jos şi moare (A man without money is like a bird without wings; When he tries to fly / He falls down and dies). The concept is essentially the same: the man without money lacks something important…

Proverbs Today

Proverbs by James Chapman - egg and hen
The egg thinks it’s smarter than the hen

While proverbs are still used today in a traditional way, that is in speech, literature and teaching, they have found a new ever expanding use in the advertising industry and in the mass media. One example is Here today, gone tomorrow, which became Hair today, gone tomorrow in the hair-removal industry. In the mass media it has a variety of paraphrases such as Hear today, gone tomorrow or Heir today, gone tomorrow. Before the Barcelona Olympic Games the old proverb All roads lead to Rome became All roads lead to… Barcelona in many English language newspapers and magazines. A new phenomenon encountered in many languages nowadays and is undoubtedly a sign of the proverb’s resilience and vitality.

Important writers of the past, among them Goethe and Voltaire, have questioned the traditional wisdom of proverbs. That led to some proverb transformations. Prof. Wolfgang Mieder coined the term anti-proverb for all forms of creative proverb changes. They can be deliberate innovations, alterations, variations, parodies. Anti-proverbs are widely spread today, some living a short time, some even making their way into recent proverb collections. A new broom sweeps clean, but the old one knows the corners and Absence makes the heart grow fonder – for somebody else are considered anti-proverbs.

Proverbs and Their Collection

Apart from studies on individual and multilingual proverbs and proverbial expressions, you will find a few e-books on our website. I will mention a Brazilian collection and a dictionary of equivalent English and Romanian proverbs. Prof. Wolfgang Mieder’s yearly bibliographies are an invaluable tool for students and researchers. Given their widespread use over the millennia, it is no wonder that scholars of the past started assembling proverbs in collections. Aristotle is believed to be among the first paremiographers (collectors of proverbs), but, unfortunately, his collection was lost. In more recent times a great impetus to the collection of proverbs was given by Erasmus. His fame spread from Venice throughout Europe after the publication in 1508 of his Adagiorum Chiliades. This collection contained 3,260 proverbs drawn from classical authors.

The success of the book led to several augmented editions culminating with that of 1536, which contains 4,151 proverbs. Erasmus’ work was translated into several European languages. While it became the model for future proverb collections in those languages, they were widely copied and translated.

One good example of such a practice is the 1591 Italian collection Giardino di Ricreatione, nel quale crescono fronde, fiori e frutti, vaghe, leggiadri e soavi, sotto nome di sei miglia proverbii, e piacevoli riboboli Italiani, colti e scelti da Giovanni Florio. And two decades later appeared in French as Le Jardin de Récréation, au quel croissent rameaux, fleurs et fruits très-beaux, gentils et souefs, soubz le nom de Six mille proverbes et plaisantes rencontres françoises, recueillis et triéez par GOMÈS DE TRIER, non seulement utiles mais délectables pour tous espritz désireux de la très-noble et copieuse langue françoise, nouvellement mis en lumière, à Amsterdam, par PAUL DE RAVESTEYN.

Proverbs and Fun

Proverbs by James Chapman - duck
If the world flooded, it wouldn’t matter to the duck

On the less academic side, you can test your knowledge of languages by solving our bilingual or multilingual crosswords. Or, you can listen to our featured proverbs in 6 languages – English, French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian and Spanish. Also, enjoy sharing them with your friends. Some were posted on Twitter as comments to political events of the day.

Painters in Renaissance time, from Hieronymus Bosch to Pieter Bruegel, with his famous Netherlandish Proverbs, were attracted by the subject.

Modern artists like James Chapman illustrated recently proverbs from other world languages with hilarious cartoons. See some of his images on this page.

The full text of this article is published in De Proverbio - Issue 1:1995, an electronic book, available from amazon.com and other leading Internet booksellers.

Still, these two terms, text and function, should focus the semiotic study of proverbs, if a proverb is to be understood as being a particular text to which a particular function is ascribed or attributed within a given culture.

Proverb research, at the time of Jolles, was still in a relatively poor state. Quite typical is the statement of Archer Taylor, who introduced his seminal book The Proverb with the words: "The proverb and related forms have long been objects of general interest and the occasion for many books, but they have attracted little serious and thorough study" (Taylor 1931: vii).

Modern investigations like to refer to Friedrich Seiler's Deutsche Sprichwörterkunde (1922) as the first serious philological investigation of the proverb. Interestingly enough, however, it was Jolles himself who argued against Seiler's definition of the proverb as "self-contained sayings current among the people, which are of didactical tendency and of above-standard form", and who rejected this definition as being incorrect and unsatisfying. If a proverb actually has a "didactical tendency", Jolles argues, has one to understand this as being a necessary (obligatory) or possible (facultative) quality? If proverbs are current in the Volksmund, how can one then accept Seiler's confession that there may be proverbs which are common in the whole folk, and others, which are known only in a particular village, district, or group? Additionally, and mainly, for Jolles, a proverb is "the form, which concludes an experience", and therefore it is essentially oriented to the past, whereas Seiler ascribed a moralistic-didactical (and therefore future-oriented) tendency to it.

Many years later, Mathilde Hain, in her empirical "folkloristic-sociological" investigation of the proverb, tried to solve the discrepancy between these two viewpoints by pointing out the general irrelevance of such an absolute dichotomy. Showing that the strict either-or of experience or morale cannot grasp the essence of the proverb, Hain provided evidence for the essential polyfunctionality of the proverb. She did not, however, refer to the theoretical concept of polyfunctionality, as it had been developed in Czech structuralism with regard to language in general, and by Petr Bogatyrev, with regard to folklore in particular. Still, with her empirical orientation, Hain entered a new field at least within the German-speaking area, although Firth, who was later to become a leading representative of functional cultural anthropology, had referred to the importance of proverb context as early as in 1926, when he wrote: "The essential thing about a proverb is its meaning,- and by this is to be understood not merely a bald and literal translation into the accustomed tongue, nor even a free version of what the words are intended to convey. The meaning of a proverb is made clear only when, side by side with the translation, is given a full account of the accompanying social situation, - the reason for its use, its effect, and its significance in speech" (Firth 1926: 134).


The full text of this article is published in De Proverbio - Issue 1:1995, an electronic book, available from amazon.com and other leading Internet booksellers.

The description of proverb meaning is, as was stated above, not possible without reference to contextual factors. Yet, it seems most reasonable, as Peter Seitel (1969, 1972) argues, to take into consideration the importance of context only as a potential, or virtual factor, and to abstract for heuristic purposes from all contextual elements (such as number, age, gender, social status of the involved persons, etc.), and to outline the "ethic frame" of proverb use. The heuristic model of proverb use developed by Seitel is based on the central assumption that the situation in which a proverb is actually used (the interaction situation) is not identical with the situation inherent in the proverb text itself (the proverb situation), and that both of them are not or need not be identical with the situation the proverb refers to, i.e., the situation to which it is intended to be applied (the context situation[*4]). Thus, when uttering a proverb, "the speaker asserts that the relationship between the things in the proverb situation is analogous to the relationship between the entities in the context situation" (Seitel 1972: 147). Therefore, proverb usage is related to two distinct, though closely related processes, namely "the process of relating proverb situation to context situation and the speech act of applying the proverb in an interaction situation" (ibd., 240). The distinction of the different types of situation involved in proverb use can be summarized in the following schema:


Figure 1:



The full text of this article is published in De Proverbio - Issue 1:1995, an electronic book, available from amazon.com and other leading Internet booksellers.

Partially, such newly created proverbs can be technically generated with the help of a computer. Baevskij (1970) made such an attempt; as his starting-point he chose the logical class K = P _ Q on a "semantic" level, syntactic kernel formulae such as 'He ...who', 'Where ...there', and others, on a "morphological" level, and integrated exclusively "traditional Russian" lexical items in form of antonymic verbs with particular metrical characteristics, on a "lexical" level. Thus he indeed got proverbs such as, e.g., As you sow, so shall you reap, and the like. Such a model can only work, however, as long as the semantic oppositions implicit in the second level of signification are realized in an equivalent form on the first level of signification, too. In order to generate proverbs such as A watched pot never boils, and many, many others, one further utopic precondition would have to be fulfilled: The whole stock of all possible and conceivable realia, including all the associations and connotations tied to them, additionally structured in their hierarchy, would have to be included in a thesaurus. Thus one need not agree with Permyakov's assumption that one can easily understand a proverb of any culture without ever having heard it before - this presupposes (in addition to language knowledge, of course) at least the knowledge of all relevant associations and connotations, and also perhaps some knowledge about usage adequate to the relevant situations.

All these considerations, however, go far beyond the question of how proverbs, or proverb situations, are modelled. These considerations are very similar to those which were discussed in the beginning of this article. It turns out to be true that the ultimate meaning of a proverb cannot be predicted from the description of the modelled proverb situation, or, in other words, that the description of a modelled proverb situation cannot adequately grasp all concrete (or possible) meanings of a proverb in a given interaction situation.[7] Yet, one can, retrospectively, subsume all actually realized meanings of a proverb under the model advanced by Permyakov. And this is one of his fundamental achievements, namely to have provided a framework able to describe these possible proverb situations in a consistent system. Further questions may be added.

Permyakov's system has suitably been called a "Mendeleevian proverb table" (Kharitonov 1969) - a formulation which adequately points out both the general character of this model and the scientific exactness which it aims at. On the other hand, Permyakov's conception has been called a "hocus pocus system" (Krikmann 1971, Kuusi 1972), and it has been opposed to Kuusi's classificational schema which has been termed a "God's truth system". Such an evaluation has been derived from Permyakov's claim to describe all actually existing and all possible (conceivable) proverbs within the framework of his model (Permyakov 1968: 42), and from the existence of so-called "free cells" within this system. Such "free cells", however, are well-known in linguistics, in particular in the field of phonology (cf. Martinet 1955; Revzin 1978: 109ff.). The juxtaposition of "God's truth systems" and "hocus pocus systems" originally has been promoted in linguistics, too. Householder (1952: 260) characterized this juxtaposition as follows: "On the metaphysics of linguistics there are two extreme positions, which may be termed (and have been) the 'God's truth' position and the 'hocus pocus' position. The theory of the God's truth linguists [...] is that language 'has' a structure and the job of the linguist is (a) to find out what the structure is, and (b) to describe it [...]. The hocus pocus linguist believes that a language (better, a corpus, since we describe only the corpus we know) is a mass of incoherent formless data, and the job of the linguist is somehow to arrange and organize this mass, imposing on it some structure [...]."

Roman Jakobson has repeatedly pointed out that such a controversy is ultimately useless, and that the reason for its discussion has to be seen in the fact that phenomena of language have to be described with its own means, i.e., meta-linguistically (Jakobson 1962: 276). Householder (1952: 260), too, admits that ultimately it seems to be rather a question of ideological-philosophical differences in approaching one and the same question, partially arriving at identical results, and he confessed, "it may be that these two metaphysical viewpoints are in some sense equivalent." That this observation directly concerns Permyakov's and Kuusi's models, too, has been pointed out by Voigt (1977: 167): "Kuusi directly departs from the given material, and he tries to arrive at the same results as Permyakov has, with the help of the deductive method."

One may discuss how far Permyakov's approach actually is a deductive one: firstly it has been developed out of the merely practical need to work out a consistent system of organizing a proverb collection, and it has been constantly verified, modified, developed; secondly, his system is based on the analysis of more than 50,000 proverbial sayings of more than 200 cultures. In his approach, as in any scientific approach, deductive and inductive ways of developing scientific models cannot be strictly separated, and they have to complement each other. Scientific models, however, are secondary modelling systems too, being superimposed on natural language, and the question of which model finally turns out to be the "more correct" one, is ultimately a question of adequacy and consistency, which can only be proved when applied to the phenomena being modelled.

The adequacy of Permyakov's theory then, being a model of (proverb) models, will have to be verified in investigations to come. In any case, due to the consistently semiotic approach in Permyakov's works (or in the works inspired by him), Permyakov has, on the one hand, succeeded in solving many questions in an innovative way, and, on the other hand, he has brought up another set of questions, the answer to which we will (hopefully) get only in the course of the years to come, but, probably, not without reference to Permyakov's work.


5. Notes

  1. The present text was originally published in German as the introduction to the Semiotische Studien zum Sprichwort - Simple Forms Reconsidered I (Grzybek, ed. 1984). An updated version of that text was then published in English in Proverbium. An International Yearbook of Proverb Scholarship, vol. 4 (1987); 39-85; I am sincerely grateful for David Beal's friendly help in "anglicizing" that text.- Except for minor stylistic changes, the English text has been deliberately left mainly unchanged for the present edition. The text thus basically reflects the author's view as it was at that time. Those few necessary alterations which imply either essential modifications or additions, have been marked by an asterisk ['*'] throughout both the text and the footnotes, and they may easily be recognized.

  2. Due to convention, the German term "Einfache Formen" has been translated as "simple forms" throughout this paper, although Taylor's (1962) proposal "primary form", ultimately, seems to be more suitable.

  3. Cf., for example, Sprichwörter - Analyse einer einfachen Form (Kanyó 1981), Simple Forms - Einfache Formen (Kanyó, ed. 1982), Semiotische Studien zum Sprichwort - Simple Forms Reconsidered I (Grzybek, ed. 1984), Semiotische Studien zum Rätsel - Simple Forms Reconsidered II (Eismann/Grzybek, eds. 1987), Simple Forms. An Encyclopaedia of Simple Text-Types in Lore and Literature (Koch, ed. 1993).


  4. On the basis of this standpoint, it is easily possible to explain why a proverb such as Rolling stones gather no moss can "actualize" rather heterogeneous connotations in different cultures (cf. Milner 1969a,b; Kirshenblatt-Gimblett 1973; Ruef 1983).




6. Bibliography



Anikin, V.P. (1965): "Ob internatsional'nom i natsional'nom izucenii poslovits (tezisy)." Proverbium (2) 1965; 27-30.


Arewa,E.O./A. Dundes (1964): "Proverbs and the Ethnography of Speaking Folklore." American Antrhopologist, (66) 1964; 70-85.


Baevskij, V.S. (1970): "Porozdayuscaya model' poeticeskoj sistemy poslovits." In: Strukturno-matematiceskie metody modelirovaniya yazyka. Kiev, 1970. (14-15)


Barley, N. (1972): "A Structural Approach to the Proverb and Maxim with Special Reference to the Anglo-Saxon Corpus." Proverbium, (20) 1972; 737-750.


Barley, N. (1974): "'The proverb' and related problems of genre-definition." Proverbium, (23) 1974; 880-884.


Bogatyrev, P.G. (1937): "Funktsii natsional'nogo kostyuma v Moravskoy Slovakii." In: P.G. Bogatyrev, Voprosy teorii narodnogo iskusstva. Moskva, 1971. (297-366)


Burk, G. (1953): Das Sprichwort in einer oberhessischen Bauernfamilie. Eine volkskundlich-soziologische Untersuchung. Diss., Frankfurt, 1953.


Burke, K. (1941): The Philosophy of Literary Form. Studies in Symbolic Action. New York, 1957.


Burkhart-Chatzeeliades, D. (1981): "Das Sprichwort als Faktum der Kommunikationswissenschaft und der Semiotik." Proverbium Paratum, (2) 1981; 141-172.



The full text of this article is published in De Proverbio - Issue 1:1995, an electronic book, available from amazon.com and other leading Internet booksellers.


Mieder, W. (1977): "Träger und Gebrauchsfunktion des Sprichworts." In: L. Röhrich/W. Mieder, Sprichwort. Stuttgart, 1977. (78-82)


Milner, G.B. (1969a): "Quadripartite structures." Proverbium, (14) 1969; 379-383.


Milner, G.B. (1969b): "What is a proverb?" New Society, (332) 1969; 199-202.


Mohr, W. (1956): "Einfache Formen." In: W. Kohlschmidt/ W. Mohr (eds.), Reallexikon der deutschen Literaturgeschichte. Berlin,[2] 1958. (321-328)


Norrick, N.R. (1981): "Proverbial Linguistics: Linguistic Perspectives on Proverbs. Trier: L.A.U.T., 1981.


Permyakov, G.L. (1967): "Logiko-semioticeskij plan poslovits i pogovorok (k voprosu o klassifikatsii zanra." Narody Azii i Afriki, (6) 1967; 52-68.


Permyakov, G.L. (1968): ("Vvedenie.") Izbrannye poslovitsy i pogovorki narodov vostoka. Moskva, 1968. (5-47)


Permyakov, G.L. (1970): From Proverb To Folk-Tale. Notes on the General Theory of Cliché. Moscow, 1979.


Permyakov, G.L. (1979): "Die Grammatik der Sprichwörterweisheit." In: Grzybek (ed.) (1984), 295-344.


Permyakov, G.L. (ed.) (1984): Paremiologiceskie issledovaniya. Sbornik statei. Moskva, 1984.


Pilorz, A. (1964): "Le proverbe et la locution considérés dans leur structure syntaxique." Roczniki Humanistyczne, (12) 1964; 69-80.


Propp, V. (1928): Morphologie des Märchens. Frankfurt, 1975.


Revzin, I.I. (1978): Struktura yazyka kak modeliruyuscej sistemy. Moskva, 1978.


Röhrich, L. (1973): ("Einleitung":) Lexikon der sprichwörtlichen Redensarten. Freiburg, 1973.


Rozhdestvensky, Yu.V. (1970): "What is 'The General Theory of Cliché'. In: G.L. Permyakov, From Proverb To Folk-Tale. Moscow, 1979. (259-284)


Ruef, H. (1983): Scene development as a process at motivation. Trier: L.A.U.T., 1983.


Saussure, F. de (1916): Grundfragen der allgemeinen Sprachwissenschaft. Berlin, 1967.


Savvina, E.N. (1984): "O transformatsiyach klisirovannykh vyrazenii v reci." In: Permyakov (ed.) (1984); 200-222.


Schveiger, P. (1981): "Considerations on an important study." Proverbium Paratum, (2) 1981; 124-140.


Seiler, F. (1922): Deutsche Sprichwörterkunde. München, 1967.


Seitel, P. (1969): "Proverbs: A Social Use of Metaphor." Genre, (2) 1969; 143-161.


Seitel, P. (1972): Proverbs and the structure of metaphor among the Haya of Tanzania. Ph.D.diss.: Univ. of Pennsylvania, 1972.


Svydkaya, L.I. (1977): "Analiz struktury znaceniya poslovits i aforizmov angliiskogo yazyka." In: Leksiko-grammaticeskaya socetaemost' v germanskich yazykach. Vyp. 2. Celyabinsk, 1977. (159-167)


Taylor, A. (1931): The Proverb and an index to the proverb. Hatboro/Copenhagen,[2] 1962.


Taylor, A. (1962): "The riddle as a primary form." In: H.P. Beck (ed.), Folklore in Action: Essays for Discussion in Honor of MacEdward Leach. Philadelphia, 1962. (200-207)


Voigt, V. (1977): "Voprosy obscej teorii poslovits." Acta Ethnographica Academicae Scientiarum Hungaricae, (26) 1977; 164-174.


Whiting, B.J. (1952): "Proverbs and proverbial sayings." In: The Frank C. Brown Collection of North Carolina Folklore. Vol. 1. Durham, 1952. (331-501)


Zholkovsky, A.K. (1978): "At the intersection of linguistics, paremiology and poetics: On the literary structure of proverbs." Poetics,, (7) 1978; 309-332.



Peter Grzybek
Institut für Slawistik

Articles | Books | Bibliographies | Bible Proverbs
Copyright © 1995-2017 De Proverbio. All rights reserved.
The banner illustration is a fragment of Pieter Bruegel's painting "The Netherlandish Proverbs", 1559